There are two main reasons for the standard sizes: first, to match the sizes of the brackets and other components (molar bands, etc) in the treatment. The second reason is to keep the force transferred/applied by the wire within physiological limits, as the maxillary or mandible bone will tolerate a certain range of force applied for the orthodontic treatment. From the top of my head, I think 7g/mm2 is the range, but I might be wrong with the number. But the idea is the same. A thicker wire would produce destructive stresses in the bone.
it is empitical. According various uses,one case needs stiffness, another case needs springness.For example in edgewise technique there are mainly 2 sizes slot systems.
0.018 inch slot system is advantagious to torque control but engaged wire is less stiff.
so, when sliding mechanics , it is not good.
In wire of plate, the wire should have optimum rigidity for support the plate. but wire thicker than 1.2mm is difficult to bend and cannot pass through the tooth structure freely.it is too bulky. the smaller one is easy to manipulate but cannot grasp the tooth with stability when bended. generally wire less than 0.7mm is too weak.
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