SLE Dental Examination-33

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     brandy689 
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    1. patient came to dentist after previous stressful procedure complaining of burning & discomfort of his lip on examination u found lesions on the palate, diagnosis is:
    – contact dermatitis
    – allergy
    – aphthous ulcer
    – herpes simplex (herpetic gingivostomatitis) ***

    2. Aphthous ulcer, compared with herbes ulcer is:
    a. More characteristic in histology.
    b. Leaves scar. تندبات
    c. Less response to stress.
    d. Occur in lining mucosa. ***
    Dental Decks – page 1552
    مهمممممممممممممم Compared to herpetic ulcers…aphthous ulcers are:
    a. Small size.
    b. In mucosa lining. ***
    c. Leave scars.
    للمقارنة بين القرحة الحلئية والقلاعية فإن كبر القرحة ليس معيار للتفريق، والنوعان لا يتركان أثراً ، أما القلاعية فهي في النسج المخاطية لا المتقرنة.

    3. child with vesicle on the hard palate with history of malaise for 3 days what is the possible diagnosis:
    1/ herpes simplex. ***
    2/ erythema multiform
    أكسفورد ص140
    الحويصلات والتوعك من علامات الحلأ البسيط

    4. The majority of primary herpetic infections are: غالبية بدايات الإصابات الحلئية
    a. Symptomatic.
    b. Asymptomatic. ***
    c. Proceeded by fever.
    d. Accompanied by gingival erythema. حمامى
    e. A, c and d.

    An 18 years old Pt present complaining of pain, bad breath and bleeding gingival. This began over the weakened while studying for the final exam. The Pt may have which of the following conditions:
    a. Acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis ***
    b. Rapidly progressive periodontitis
    c. Desquamative gingivitis. توسفي
    d. Acute periodontal cyst.

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/u…supplip114.pdf
    Thus, the former term, “acute necrotising ulcerative gingivitis” (ANUG) is summed up in necrotising gingivitis (NG(
    NG is a relatively rare disease and is generally described as existing in young adults between the ages of 18 and 30 years.
    It tends to emerge more frequently when the patient is under conditions of both physical and psychological stress.
    The disease is characterized by pain, bleeding and papillary necrosis with tendency to relapse
    Abrupt onset. If the patient has had prior outbreaks, he/ she is capable of reporting prodromal symptoms; for instance, a burning sensation in the gums.
    Poor general health status and low-grade fever Halitosis. ; it varies in terms of both intensity and degree.
    5. Gingival condition occur in young adult has good oral hygiene was weakened
    .ANUG
    .desqumative gingivitis
    .periodontitis
    .gingivitis

    “Tyldesley’s oral medicine”
    The influence of poor oral hygiene in the initiation of ANUG has been often stressed, but there is no doubt that there are some patients whose standard of hygiene must be considered by normal criteria to be good.
    6. Differences between ANUG and AHGS is:
    a. ANUG occur in dental papilla while AHGS diffuse erythematous inflamed gingival.
    b. ANUG occur during young adult and AHGS in children.
    c. All of the above. ***

    7. 53. Student, came to clinic with severe pain, interdental papilla is inflamed, student has exams, heavy smoker, poor nutrition.
    A. Gingivitis
    b. ANUG
    c. Periodontitis

    8. Isolation period of chickenbox should be:
    -after appear of rach by week
    -untill vesicle become crusted. ***
    -until carter stage is last
    يتم عزل مريض الحلأ النطاقي حتى تنقشر جميع الحويصلات.
    Dental decks – page130 8 مهم جدااا 1311
    Its most contagious one day before the onset of rash and until all vesicle have crusted.
    9. The most common form of oral ulcerative disease is:
    a. HSV.
    b. Major aphthous ulcer. القلاعية الكبرى
    c. Bahjet disease.
    d. Minor aphthous ulcer. ***

    what is the time bet. the first onset of HIV virus (human immunodeficiency virus) is the virus that causes AIDS and the appearance of acute symptoms :
    a)1-5 years.
    b)9-11 years. ***
    c- No specific time is known.
    10. What is the estimated incubation period of HIV infection: فترة الحضانة التقريبية
    a. 4 weeks.
    b. 6 months.
    c. 3 years.
    d. 6 years.
    e. 10 years. ***
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aids
    In the absence of antiretroviral therapy, the median time of progression from HIV infection to AIDS is nine to ten years, and the median survival time after developing AIDS is only 9.2 months. However, the rate of clinical disease progression varies widely between individuals, from two weeks up to 20 years.
    417) What’s the test used for HIV:
    Elisa. ***
    11. All of the following are oral features of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome AIDS EXCEPT:
    a. Candidiasis. المُبْيَضَّات
    b. Erythema multiform. *** حمامى متعددة الأشكال
    c. Hairy leukoplakia. طلوان مشعر
    d. Rapidly progressing periodontitis.
    e. Kaposi’s sarcoma.
    تنتج الحمامى متعددة الأشكال عن فيروس الحلأ وعن الإكثار من الأغذية الحاوية على البنزوات وينتج عنها داء ستيفن جونسون
    12. Syphilis first appearance:
    a. Multiple vesicle. حويصلات
    b. Erythematous reaction. حمامى
    c. Ulcer. ***
    d. Bullae. فقاعات

    13. Which is most common:
    a. Cleft lip.
    b. Cleft palate.
    c. Bifid tongue.
    d. Cleft lip and palate. ***
    المرجع: كتاب أمراض الفم
    في 81 حالة إصابة توجد 50 شق شفة وقبة حنك و14 لقبة الحنك – و17 للشفة.
    (most common & most complicated) (Source: Peterson’s page 841)
    Clefts of the upper lip and palate are the most common major congenital craniofacial abnormality.
    Atlas of Oral Diseases in Children
    Cleft lip and palate ar more common together than is cleft lip alone.
    e.

    14. Radiopacity attached to root of mandibular molar:
    a. Ossifying fibroma.
    b. Hypercementosis. ***
    c. Periapical cemental dysplasia
    .

    Dental secrets – page 256
    Hypercementosis increases the difficulty of tooth removal.
    Dental secrets – page 113
    If hypercementosis is present, t he periodontal ligament space is visible around the added cementum; that is, the cementum is contained within and is surrounded by the periodontal ligament space. Condensing osteitis, by contrast, is situated outside the periodontal ligament space.

    Enlarged root of tooth no. 29, particularly in the apical area. The root of tooth no. 28 also shows some widening. The periodontal ligament
    space surrounds the tissue that has been laid down, and the lamina aura is visible outside the
    Extraction sockets. The appearance of a healing or
    ket may present a problem. The
    ssistance in
    distinguishing between the two include the density of
    e or absence of a canal, and
    Worth HM: Principles and Practice of Oral Radiologic Interpretation. Chicago, Year-Book, 1963, pp
    H
    periodontal ligament space. B, An opacity situated outside the periodontal ligament
    15. The scientific evidence in dictating that oral Lichen planus is a “premalignant Lesion” is: محتمل الخباثة
    a. Very strong
    b. Non-existent
    c. Moderately strong
    d. Weak. ***
    – The premalignant potential of oral lichen planus and the malignant transformation rate is cited as 0.4-3.3 per cent. Whether or not patients with atrophic or erosive forms of oral lichen planus are more susceptible to malignant change has yet to be proved by long-term prospective studies.
    And
    – Good prognosis; rare malignant transformation (0.5–3%)

    16. Oral lesions of lichen planus usually appear as:
    a. White striae. *** بقع بيضاءwhicham striae
    b. Red plaque.
    c. Shallow ulcers. قرحات مسطحة
    d. Papillary projections. ناتئ حليمي
    e. Builae. فقاعات
    Dental Decks – page 1340
    Cawson Essintials of Oral Pathology and Oral Medicine 7th ed
    النموذج المخطط Striate pattern للحزاز المنبسط ھو نموذج الآفات الأكثر شیوعاً على شكل شبكة شریطیة من الخطوط البيضاء وفي الموقع الأكثر شیوعاً على مخاطیة باطن الخد.
    17. The oral lesions of the lichen planus: الحزاز المنبسط
    a. Are usually painful.
    b. Rarely appear before lesion elsewhere on the body.
    c. May be part of a syndrome in which lesions also appear on the skin, conjunctiva and genitalia. *** الملتحمة والأعضاء التناسلية
    d. Often appear in nervous, high-strung individuals.
    e. Heals with scarring. يترك ندبة

    PDQ Oral Disease Dx Tx 2002 – page 22
    • Skin sites: forearm, shin, scalp, genitalia.
    Etiology: • Unknown • Autoimmune T cell–mediated disease targeting basal keratinocytes.
    Lichen Planus Variants: reticular (most common oral form) – erosive (painful) – atrophic, papular, plaque types; bullous (rare)
    Cawson Essintials of Oral Pathology and Oral Medicine 7th ed
    الحزاز المنبسط مرض جلدي شائع ولكن الآفات الجلدية غير شائعة عند أولئك الذين يعانون من الأعراض الفموية.
    الآفات الجلدیة لیست أساسیة في تأكيد أو إثبات تشخیص الإصابة الفمویة بالحزاز المنبسط و لكنھا تُساعد. Verrucous carcinoma: السرطانة الثؤلولية
    a. Malignant. ***
    b. Benign.

    18. Patient comes to your clinic complaining that the denture become tight, during examination you notice nothing, but when the patient stand you notice that his legs bowing (curved). What you suspect:
    A) Paget’s disease.. ***

    19. The x ray show scattered مشتت radiopaque line in the mandible jaw, the diagnosis will be:
    A- Paget disease. ***
    B- Garres syndrome
    C- Fibrous dysplasia
    D- Osteosarcoma

    20. Hypercementosis and ankylosis is seen in
    a: paget disease. ***
    b: monocytic fibrous dysplasia
    c: hyperparathirodism

    21. Pt come for check up, no complaining, after radiograph u see well circumscribeمحدودة radiolucent area in related to mandibular molar & the periphery was radiopaque which not well defined border the diagnosis is:
    simple bone cyst. ***

    1. cyst between roots of mandibular molars , above the mandibular canal has Scallopped border above inferior alveolar canal, on inspiration straw like exudate, the teeth were vital, no periodontal involvment this lesion is:
    – static bone cyst
    – stafne bone cyst
    – aneurismal bone cyst
    – unicameral bone cyst*** احادي

    22. Scalloppedحلقة border above inferior alveolar canal between roots of mandibular molars, this lesion is:
    a) solitary cyst.
    b) aneurysmal bone cyst.
    c) traumatic bone cyst(simple bone cyst. ***
    كيس صدفي الحواف فوق القناة السنخية السفلية، شعاعياً حدوده شافة رقيقة ويتراوح بين 1 سم وحتى يشمل الأرحاء. لا يسبب امتصاصها أو ضياع الصفيحة القاسية
    This is the radiographic finding for the the trumatic bone cyst Radiographically, these lesions tend to appear as smoothly outlined radiolucencies that scallop around the roots of the teeth. They do not displace teeth or resorb roots, and the lamina dura is left intact. They may range from very small (<1 cm) to very large (involving most of the mandible). They tend to occur above the inferior alveolar canal
    Dental decks – page 160
    A traumatic bone cyst is not a true cyst since there is no epithelial lining. Found mostly in yong people, asymptomic. Radiolucency which appears to scallop around the roots of teeth. Teeth are usually vital.
    23. Radiographic radioulucency in the interradicular area:
    a. Invasion of furcation. إنتان منطقة مفترق الجذور
    b. Periodontal abcess. خراج حول سني
    c. Periodontal cyst. كيسة حول سنية (نسج داعمة)
    ORAL RADIOLOGY 5th ed – page 321
    Clinical Outline of Oral Pathology

    24. Radiographic diagnosis of a well-defined, unilocular radiolucent, area between vital mandibular bicuspias is more likely to be:
    a. Residual cyst. كيس متبقي
    b. The mental foramen. *** الثقبة الذقنية
    c. A radicular cyst.
    d. Osteoporosis. تخلخل العظم
    e. None of the above.

    25. Female . Swelling in left of mandible, slowly increasing , radio opaque surrounded by radiolucent band:
    a. Osteoma.
    b. Ossifying fibroma.
    c. Cementoblastoma. ***
    d. Osteosarcoma.
    26. 33 years old female PT come with slow growing swelling in the angle of the mandible. Radiograph show radio-opaque with radio-lucent border diagnosis:
    a. Osteoma.
    b. Osteosarcoma.
    c. Cementoblatoma. ***

    27. The following are types of hamartoma EXCEPT: ورم عابي (خلقي)
    a. Cementoblastoma ***. ورم مصورات الملاط
    b. Compound odontoma. ورم سني
    c. Complex odontoma.
    وهو ورم سليم

    28. Which of the following lesions has more tendency to show well defined multilocular radiolucency:
    a. Lateral periodontal cyst
    b. Squamous cell carcinoma of jaw bones
    c. Primordial cyst. بدئي
    d. Ameloblastoma. ***
    e. Osteomylitis of the mandible. التهاب العظم والنقي

    11- A 23 years patient suffering from dull pain of slow growing swelling in the mandible tooth no 38 is missing clinically and the radiograph show A multiradiolucent area in the mandibular molar area with root resorption of the 37 the diagnosis is:
    a-ameloblastoma**
    b-dentigerous cyct
    c- Odontogenic keratocyst
    Ameloblastomas, also known as adamantinoma, are the most common odontogenic tumor (35%). They are benign, locally aggressive neoplasms arising from ameloblasts, which typically occur at the angle of the mandible and are often associated with an unerupted tooth and must therefore be differentiated from a dentigerous cyst which will be centered around the crown. When in the maxilla (less common) they are located in the premolar region, and can extend up in the maxillary sinus.

    white and pharaoh, oral radiology principles and interpretation,4th ed , page 386-389

    29. Child 12 years old with swelling in the mandibular premolars area, first premolar clinically missing, in X ray examination we found Radiolucent is cover the percoronal part of the 3rd molar is:
    1. Dentigerous cyst. ***

    30. Young pt came without any complain. During routine X ray appear between the two lower molar lesion diameter about 2mm & extend laterally with irregular Shape. What’s the type of cyst
    a) dentigerous cyst
    b) apical cyst
    c) radicular cyst

    DENTIGEROUS CYST
    DESCRIPTION
    The Dentigerous (Follicular) Cyst, the most common of the developmental of odontogenic cysts, develops by the accumulation of fluid within the follicular space of an unerupted tooth after its crown has fully formed.

    HISTOLOGY
    The epithelial covering of the cyst is a thin regular layer made of few cell layers; it is defined as a pluristratified non keratinized epithelium.
    The metaplasia of the mucous membrane occurs frequently and increases as patient gets older. The cyst epithelium is covered by a capsule made of fibrous connective tissue that is usually relatively uninflamed except close to the junctional epithelium where a chronic inflammatory cell infiltrate may occur. Inside the cyst It can be found a protein fluid.

    EPIDEMIOLOGY:
    -10-15% of maxillary odontogenic cysts
    -Wide range of age, especially occurs among adolescents and over 50s
    -No difference between males and females
    -No difference between maxilla and mandible
    -Dentigerous cyst may occur more often in unerupted teeth
    – The teeth most commonly affected are third molars and maxillary cuspids. No tooth is immune, but decidious teeth are scarcely ever affected.
    SYMPTOMS
    Small cysts are without symptoms but large ones expand the affected jaw and may cause pain and less often paresthesia .
    DIAGNOSIS
    Based on rx evidence Dentigerous cysts appears as a well-circumscribed,usually unilocular pericoronal radiolucency; they often are in contact with the crown of an included tooth which can be dislocated by the growth of the cyst itself.

    31. Most commonly dentigerous cysts are associated with:
    a. Unerupted permanent maxillary canines
    b. Unerupted mandibular third molars. ***

    Spontaneous regression of bilateral dentigerous cysts associated with impacted mandibular third molars : Article : British Dental Journal
    It is most prevalent in the third molar region and is therefore a common cause of a radiolucency associated with the crown of an impacted third molar
    Bilateral Dentigerous Cysts – Report of an Unusual Case and Review of the Literature
    although it may involve any tooth, the mandibular third molars are the most commonly affected.

    32. Histopathologically, dentigerous cyst Lining epithelium may be: الكيسة السنية المبطنة بظهارة
    a. Cuboidal in type. مكعبي الشكل
    b. Stratified squamous in type. *** حرشفي مطبّق
    c. Reduced enamel epithelium. ظهارة مينائية ضامرة
    d. All of the above.
    المرجع: ويكيبيديا و Oral pathology clinical pathologic correlation,3rd edition, Page 294
    33. Radiographic diagnosis of bone destructive in the mandible without evidence of bone formation is:
    a. Osteomyelitis.
    b. Malignancy. ***
    c. Fibro-osseous lesion.
    d. Fracture.
    e. osteoradionecrosis.

    Dental secrets – page 115
    Malignant lesions destroy bone uniformly. In ost eomyelitis, areas of radiographically normal-appearing bone are frequently seen between the areas of destruction. Sequestra are not present in malignant lesions.

    34. A 60-year-old man has been treated for a t2nom osquamous cell carcinoma by radical radiotherapy. He has a history of chronic alcoholism and was a heavy smoker. Six years after treatment, he develops a painful ulcer in the alveolar mucosa in the treated area following minor trauma. His pain worsens and the bone became progressively exposed. He is treated by a partial mandibular resection with graft. The diagnosis is
    a. Acute osteomylitis
    b. Gerre,s osteomylitis
    c. Osteoradionecrosis ***
    d. Chronic osteomylitis

    Osteoradionecrosis is more in
    a: maxilla
    b: mandible. ***
    c: no difference

    35. Radiographic diagnosis of bilateral expansible radio opaque areas in the caninpremolar region of the mandible is:
    a. Hematoma.
    b. Remaining roots.
    c. Tours mandibularis. ***
    d. Internal oplique ridge.
    e. Genial tubercle.

    36. – In radiographs, which disease cause multiple radiolucencies:
    a. Hypothyroidism.
    b. Hyperparathyroidism. ***
    c. Ricket disease.

    37. The following are multilocular radiolucencies in x-ray EXCEPT:
    a. Ameloblastoma.
    b. Odontogenic keratocyst. كيسة متقرنة سنية المنشأ
    c. Adenomatoid Odontogenic cyst. *** كيس سني المنشأ شبيه بالورم الغدي
    d. Myxoma. ورم مخاطي

    متعددة الحجرات أيضاً: central giant cell reparative granuloma – aneurismal bone cyst – brown tumor of hyperparathyroidism – Odontogenic Myxoma/Myxofibroma – Cherubism – Hypopharynx Abscess –
    نادراً متعددة الحجرات Simple Bone Cyst: Solitary bone cyst, traumatic bone cyst, hemorrhagic bone cyst, hemorrhagic cyst, idiopathic bone cavity, unicameral bone cyst
    متعددة أو مفردة: Fibrous Dysplasia – Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma –

    38. Patient came to your clinic with severe pain, on x-ray the right side of the mandible has a radiolucency with a radiopaque border that resembles the sunshine rays. Your diagnosis is :
    A) ossifying fibroma
    B) osteosarcoma. ***
    C) acute osteomyelitis

    39. The most common type of malignant bone tumor of the jaws is:
    a. الثانيةOsteochondrosarcoma. ساركوما عظمية غضروفية
    b. الاولىOsteosarcoma. *** sun
    c. Leiomyosarcoma. ساركوما عضلية ملساء
    d. Chondrosarcoma.
    المرجع: ” Oral pathology clinical pathologic correlation”
    بينما الساركوما الغضروفية هي الثانية.

    http://jmedicalcasereports.com/content/3/1/9327
    http://smj.sma.org.sg/4902/4902pe1.pdf
    Cortical integrity, periosteal reaction and soft tissue
    Slow-growing lesions often cause expansion with cortical bowing, while cortical destruction denotes aggressive inflammatory or neoplastic lesions. Presence of periosteal reaction and soft tissue is also suggestive of an inflammatory or malignant aetiology. Some types of periosteal reactions are quite specific, like the sunburst type in osteosarcoma.

    Periapical and occlusal radiography and orthopantomography revealed diffuse bone destruction on the left side of the mandible due to the presence of a lesion of variable appearance, presenting dense radiopaque, mixed and completely radiolucent areas. The lesion was extensive and poorly delimited, with the periosteum showing the classical “sunray” reaction on occlusal and periapical radiographs

    40. Osteomyelitis most in: التهاب العظم والنقي
    a. Maxilla
    b. Mandible. ***
    بالعلوي نادر جداً جداً بسبب التروية الغزيرة
    41. Diabetic patient came to clinic with pain & swelling & enlarged mandible, on radiograph it showed mouth eaten appearance, your diagnosis is :
    a) acute osteomyelitis. ***
    b) focal sclerosing osteomyelitis.
    c) diffuse sclerosing.

    http://www.dent.ucla.edu/pic/visitors/teethloss/page1.html
    OSTEOMYELITIS : Radiographically the “moth-eaten” appearance is quite characteristic
    And
    Dental Decks – page 170
    42. Patient suffering from pain in the area of the mandibular molars with paresthesia تشوش الحس in the lower lip. By clinical and radiographic examination your diagnosis:
    A) Acute osteomyelitis. ***
    Dental secrets – page 95
    Oral paresthesia may be caused by manipulation or inflammation of a nerve or tissues around a nerve, direct damage to a nerve or tissues around a nerve, tum or impinging on or invading a nerve, pnmary neural tumor, and central nervous system tumor.

    43. 20 years old male PT came with severe pain on chewing related to lower molars. Intraoral examination reveals no caries, good oral hygiene, no change in radiograph. PT give history of bridge cementation 3 days ago. Diagnosis:
    a. Pulp necrosis.
    b. Acute apical periodontitis. ***
    c. Chronic apical abscess.
    d. None of the above.

    44. HBV can be transmitted by transplacental: المشيمة
    a. True. ***
    b. False.

    45. In sickle cell anemia, O2 is decreased in oral mucosa: فقر الدم المنجلي
    a. True. ***
    b. False.

    46. Destruction of RBC may cause anemia and it is due to defect in cell membrane: تخرب كريات الدم الحمراء
    a. True. ***
    b. False.

    47. Immunofluorecent test and biopsy are used to diagnosis pemphigus: اختبار التألق المناعي والخزع يستخدم لتشخيص الفقاع
    a. True. ***
    b. False.

    48. Measuring blood pressure is one of vital signs important in medical compromised:
    a. True. ***
    b. False.

    49. Microbial virulent produced by root bacteria is collagenase from spirochete: الذيفان الجرثومي في القناة هو كولاجيناز من الملتويات
    a. True. ***
    b. False.

    50. The most common benign tumor in oral cavity is: الحميد
    a. Fibroma. ***ورم ليفي
    b. Papilloma.
    c. Lipoma.ورم شحمي

    Dental Decks – page 1030-1039
    Fibroma: reactive, the most common tumor seen in oral cavity.

    51. Most common Benign Tumer in oral cavity is:
    a. Fibroma (Ameloblastic fibroma). ***

    52. Unilateral swelling + slowly progressing Lesion on the Left side of the mandible. This could be:
    a. Osteoma. ورم عظمي
    b. Cementoblastoma.
    c. Ossifying Fibroma. ***
    d. Osteo-sarcom.
    Oral pathology clinical pathologic correlation,3rd edition, Page 357
    The ossifying fibroma is a slow growing ,expansible lesion that is usually a symptomatic

    53. The most prominent cell in acute inflammation is: أبرز خلية
    a. Lymphocyst.chronic
    b. Plasma cell.
    c. PMN. ***المفصصات

    54. Radiopacity at the apex of a tooth with chronic pulpitis:
    a. Condensing osteitis (a focal sclerosing osteomyelitis). ***التهاب العظم الكثيف أو التهاب العظم والنقي البؤري المتصلب
    b. Cemental dysplasia.سوء التنسج
    c. Perapical granuloma.ورم حبيبي
    Dental Decks – page 1050
    55. Patient with radiopacity in the periapical area of a 1st mandibular molar with a wide carious lesion and a bad periodontal condition is:
    condensing osteosis ***
    hypercementosis

    56. Acute periapical cyst and acute periodontal cyst are differentiated by:
    a. Vitality test. ***
    b. Radiograph.
    c. Clinical examination.

    57. Acute periapical abscess associated with
    a. Swelling. ***
    b. Widening of PDL.
    c. Pus discharge.

    58. Hairy trichoglossia may be caused by:
    a. Broad spectrum antibiotic.
    b. H2o2 mouth wash.
    c. Systemic steroid.
    d. Heavy smokers.
    e. All of the above. ***
    المرجع: ” DENTAL SECRETS Second Edition”
    يضاف لها نقص اللعاب وتناول مركبات البزموت والصحة الفموية السيئة

    .
    59. In hairy tongue, which taste buds increase in Length: براعم الذوق
    a. Fili form. *** الخيطية
    b. Fungi form. الكمئية
    c. Foliate. الورقية
    d. Circumvallates. الكأسية

    Dental Decks – page 1337
    Fili :اكثر عدد وع شكل في ومفيها تسيت بد ,increased kertenize
    Fungi:flat shape.on lateral tip margen
    Circu:largest .circul v shape.VON EBNER GLAND.LEAST NUMBER.
    FOLIATE:LATERAL MARGEN 3-4 VERTICAL FOLD.
    كل الثلاثة الاخيرة فيها تست بد

    60. Geographic tongue is seen in Pt with:
    a. Diabetes. ***
    b. Iron deficiency anemia.
    c. Pemphigus.الفقاع

    Burket- Oral medicine – page 116
    Benign migratory glossitis is seen with a fourfold increase in frequency in patients with juvenile diabetes, possibly due to an increased frequency of elevated amounts of the HLA-B15 tissue type.
    إذاً اللسان الجغرافي يترافق أحياناً مع السكري الشبابي، وكذلك عند بعض مرضى الربو والأكزيما والحساسية وفقر الدم الوبيل، وعند الحوامل المصابات بنقص حمض الفوليك والاضطرابات الهرمونية، والأهم أنه يشاهد عند مرضى الصداف.

    10-Geographic tongue is always accompanied in patient with:
    a. Diabetes.
    b. Erythema multiform.
    c. Iron deficiency.
    d. Psoriasis. ***
    Cawson Essintials of Oral Pathology and Oral Medicine 7th ed
    Geographical tongue:
    في ھذه الحالة ھناك مظھرٌ یتكررُ دوریَّاً و یختفي عبارة عن مناطق حمراء اللون على اللسان . السبب غیر معروف لكن في بعض الأحیان ھناك قصة إصابة عائلیة واضحة عن وجودھا في أجیال متعددة . یمكن لذلك مشاھدة ھذا الشذوذ في بعض الأحیان في مرحلة الطفولة ، لكن من المحتمل أن لا تتم ملاحظتھا غالباً . معظم الحالات شُوھدت لدى المرضى في منتصف العمر . إنھ یبدو من غیر المحتمل لكنھ لیس من المستحیل أن تبقى ھذه الحالة غیر مُلاحظة لفترة طویلة . عند العدید من المرضى یبدو اللسان الجغرافي على أنھ شُذوذٌ تطوُّري لكنھ یظھر أیضاً مترافقاً معpsoriasis الصُّداف
    Burket- Oral medicine – page 115
    There may be an association between certain types of psoriasis (especially pustular psoriasis) and geographic tongue.

    61. A 21 years old patient who has iron deficiency anemia, difficulty in swallowing, with examination of barium sulphate, you found:

    A. Geographical tongue.
    B. Burning mouth syndrome. ***
    C. ………….. Syndrome
    D. Diabetic patient
    Iron deficiency result in:
    Candida – Leukoplakia – Aphthous Stomatitis – Sore tongue (glossodynia – glossitis – Burning mouth syndrome) – Patterson-Brown-Kelly syndrome (GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASE)
    62. Pt came to the clinic complaining from soreness in the tongue sore throat the diagnosis is:
    a) burning mouth syndrome. ***
    b) geographical tongue
    c) fissure tongue

    Burket- Oral medicine – page 96
    Acute atrophic candidiasis presents as a red patch of atrophic or erythematous raw and painful mucosa, with minimal evidence of the white pseudomembranous lesions observed in thrush. Antibiotic sore mouth, a common form of atrophic candidiasis, should be suspected in a patient who develops symptoms of oral burning, bad taste, or sore throat during or after therapy with broad-spectrum antibiotics. Patients with chronic iron deficiency anemia may also develop atrophic candidiasis.
    كما أن عسر البلع وألم الحنجرة يوجد أيضاً عند مرضى الحلأ البسيط simplex herpes
    63. Burning mouth syndrome is a chronic disorder typically characterized by each of the following EXCEPT:
    a. Mucosal lesion. *** آفة بالغشاء المخاطي
    b. Burning pain in multiple oral sites. ألم حرقة
    c. Pain similar in intensity to toothache pain. يشبه ألم الأسنان بالشدة
    d. Persistent altered taste perception. تغير مستمر بحاسة الذوق

    64. Which of the following is the most likely potential cause of BMS (Burning mouth syndrome): السبب الأكثر احتمالاً
    a. Denture allergy.
    b. Salivary dysfunction. ***
    c. Neural dysfunction.
    d. Menopausal changes. انقطاع الطمث

    65. Which of the following represents the best pharmacologic therapy for BMS:
    a. Antidepressant agents. مضادات الكآبة
    b. Corticosteroids.
    c. Anxiolytic agents.
    d. There is no therapy of proven general efficacy. ***فعالية
    http://jada.ada.org/cgi/reprint/126/7/842.pdf
    If an underlying cause of BMS can be identified (Table 2), then treatment should be directed toward the source.”41″6 Unfortunately, treatment based on any of these possible etiologic factors is frequently ineffective,’ and no therapy for BMS has proven generally effective.

    66. Tobacco دخان التبغ should be considered a risk factor when planning treatment for Pt who require:
    a. Implants.
    b. Periodontal surgery.
    c. Oral surgery.
    d. Esthetic treatment.
    e. All of the above. ***

    67. Which of the following is a benign epithelial neoplasm: ورم ظهاري سليم
    a. Rhabdomyoma. الورم العضلي المخطط
    b. Fibroma. ورم ليفي
    c. Lipoma. ورم شحمي
    d. Granular cell tumor. ورم الخلايا الحبيبية
    e. Keratoacanthoma. *** ورم شائكي متقرن

    Journal of Applied Oral Science And MCQs in Dentistry Cawson – page 79
    And
    http://famona.erbak.com/OTOHNS/Cummings/cumm072.pdf
    A rhabdomyoma is a benign neoplasm of striated muscle.
    Almost all lesions in the oral cavity that are called fibromas are not true neoplasms
    A lipoma is a benign neoplasm composed of fat cells.
    A granular cell tumor, also called granular cell myoblastoma or Abrikosov’s tumor in
    the past, is a benign lesion of the soft tissues whose origin and nature are not fully
    understood. For a long time the lesion was considered a benign neoplasm related to muscles.
    Currently a neurogenic origin seems to be more likely.
    A keratoacanthoma, also called molluscum sebaceum, is a benign cutaneous lesion that
    is believed to arise from hair follicles Histologic examination of a keratoacanthoma shows hyperplastic epithelium with carcinoma-like features
    And
    Journal of Applied Oral Science –
    The keratoacanthoma: It is defined as a benign epithelial neoplasm, originated from the superior portion of the sebaceous gland of the hair follicle

    68. Which most common salivary gland neoplasm: ورم
    Pleomorphic adenoma. *** ورم غدي متعدد الأشكال
    Oral pathology clinical pathologic correlation 3rd edition – Page 239
    Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common tumor of the major and minor salivary glands
    وهو يصيب الغدة النكفية ويمثل 80% من مجمل الأمراض التي تصيب الغدد اللعابية عموماً.
    69. Lesion similar to Endo Lesion:
    a. Hyperparathyroidism
    b. Initial stage of cemental dysplasia *** درجة أولية من خلل تنسج الملاط
    c. Ossifying Fibroma
    d. Dentigerous cyst. كيسة سنية
    e. Ameloblastoma.
    f. Lateral periodontal cyst.
    g. Myxoma & hemangioma. ورم مخاطي ووعائي

    70. The Common disease affecting the submandibular salivary gland is:
    a. Salivary calculi ***
    b. Pleomorphic adenomas. متعدد الأشكال
    c. Viral sialoadenitis. التهاب الغدة اللعابية الفيروسي
    d. Infected sialoadenitis.

    71. Ranula is associated with which salivary gland:
    a-submandiuLar gland.
    b-sublingual gland. ***
    EAOM – OBSTRUCTIVE SALIVARY DISEASE [Notizia-89]
    A ranula is a similar cyst arising in the floor of mouth from the sublingual gland
    72. Ranula Can be treated by:
    a. Excision. الاستئصال – القطع
    b. Cauterization. الكي
    c. Incision. البضع
    d. Marsupialization. *** التوخيف
    Oral pathology clinical pathologic correlation,3rd edition, Page 222
    “Marsupialization can be performed before a definitive excision”
    And
    Contemporary oral and maxillofacial surgery, peterson, 4th edition, Page 447
    The usual treatment of ranula is marsupialization….
    The preferred tx for recurrent or persistent ranula is excision of the ranula and sublingual gland.

    The Most common odontogenic cysts in the jaws are:
    a. Radicular cyst. *** جذري
    b. Keratocyst.

    81. Cause of radicular cyst:
    a. Non vital tooth ***
    b. Vital tooth

    73. Thyroglossal duct cysts: القناة الدرقية اللسانية
    a. Are only found in the posterior tongue.
    b. Clinically present in the Lateral neck tissue.
    c. May be found anywhere along the pathway of the embryonic thyroglossal duct. ***
    d. Are sometimes called Lympho-epithelial cysts.

    Oral pathology clinical pathologic correlation,3rd edition, Page 316
    Most cyst occur in the midline ,with 60% over the thyroid membrane and only 2% within the tongue it self.
    Residual epithelial elements that do not completely atrophy may give rise to cysts in later life.
    74. Primary malignant melanoma of the oral mucosa: القيتاميني الخبيث
    a. Always originates within the surface epithelium.
    b. Mostly originates within the surface epithelium.
    c. Always originates from nevus cells in the connective tissue. ***
    d. Always originates from Langerhans cells within epithelium.

    75. Histopathologically adenoid cystic carcinoma in characterized by islands of:
    a. Basophilic islands of tumor cells that are intermingled with areas of pseudocartilage. جزر قاعدية التلون من الخلايا الورمية المتداخلة مع غضاريف كاذبة
    b. Basophilic islands of tumor cells having a “Swiss cheese” appearance. ***
    c. Basophilic islands of tumor cells having a “Swiss cheese” appearance and evidence of serous acini. عنيبات مصلية
    d. Basophilic islands of tumor cells that contain mucin and normal acini. موسين
    Perineural spread of malignant lesion in the parotid gland:
    – Worthin tumor
    – Ductal papilloma
    – Pleomorphic adenoma
    – Adenoid cystic carcinoma*****
    الجواب الصحيح هو الجواب الرابع متاكد من كتاب oral pathology and oral medicen page 267
    urrent research suggests that tumors play a more active role in perineural invasion than previously thought. NCAM is an immunoglobulin that has several functions (including adhesion, proliferation, and migration of neural cells) and is thought to play a role in perineural invasion. Several studies have shown that NCAM is expressed in a large percentage of patients with adenoid cystic carcinoma, although its role in perineural invasion associated with squamous cell carcinoma (SCCA) is not as well defined. Other studies have shown that a wide variety of neurotrophic growth factors and matrix metalloproteinases are also expressed in cancers that exhibit perineural spread.

    Perineural spread is a well-recognized phenomenon in head and neck cancers. SCCAs are the most frequent neoplasms to exhibit this behavior, followed by adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC), lymphoma, and rhabdomyosarcoma. Because of their extensive and intricate network of nerve fibers within the head and neck, the trigeminal and facial nerves are the nerves most commonly affected. In addition, these nerves have various interconnections between them that serve as a mechanism for widespread dissemination.

    76. The risk of malignant change being present in epithelium is greatest in:
    a. Homogenous Leukoplakia
    b. Erythroplakia. ***
    c. Chronic hyperplasic candidiasis
    d. Speckled Leukoplakia
    Erythroplakia should be viewed as a more serious lesion because of a significantly higher percentage of malignancies associated with it

    77. The most common malignant tumors of the minor salivary glands are:
    a. Adenoid cystic carcinoma and adenocarcinoma
    b. Adenoid cystic carcinoma and acinic cell carcinoma
    c. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma. ***
    d. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma and polymorphous Low grade adenocarcinoma
    Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg — Malignant Minor Salivary Gland Tumors of the Larynx, July 2006, Ganly et al. 132 (7): 767
    The most common malignant minor salivary gland tumors are adenoid cystic and mucoepidermoid carcinomas.

    78. Cause of angular cheilitis:
    a. Loss vertical dimension Pt have complete denture. ***
    b. Autoimmune factors.

    “Dental secrets”
    يحدث التهاب الشفة الصواري عند نقص البعد العمودي الإطباقي وعند تنضيد الأسنان الخلفية العلوية للدهليزي وعند رفع الأسنان السفلية فتمنع الخدود من إزالة اللعاب فيتجمع في زوايا الفم ويسيل.
    “Atlas Of Oral Medicine”
    كما يحدث عند الإصابة بالمبيضات البيض والعقديات والعنقوديات ونقص الحديد والفيتامينات وداء كرون والإيدز والأمراض المناعية.
    كتاب “أمراض الفم”
    كما يحدث عند المسنين فاقدي الأسنان أو البعد العمودي للأسنان الطبيعية، ويحدث عند الأطفال (عادة ترطيب الشفة)
    79. Ugly duckling stage:
    a. 9-11 years old.
    b. 13-15 years old.
    c. 7-9 years old.
    يستمر تباعد الرباعيات حتى تبزغ الأنياب.

    Nicotine stomatitis: التهاب الفم النيكوتيني
    a. Palate…….hyper??
    b. Hyperplasia – فرط تنسج
    c. Prickle cell like shape prominent …base…*** طبقة خلايا شائكة فوق سماكة من النسج
    Dental decks 2004

    7) Pt diagnosed with Nicotinic stomatitis the histology of the region will show:
    -acanthosis and hyperkeratosis of the epithelium with infilterate beneath.***

    80. Dentinogenesis imperfecta have all EXCEPT: سوء تصنع العاج
    a. Broken enamel.
    b. Blue sclera.
    c. Broken bone.
    d. Supernumerary teeth. ***
    Symptoms of
    Dentinogenesis imperfecta, type I
    The list of signs and symptoms mentioned in various sources for Dentinogenesis imperfecta, type I includes the 14 symptoms listed below:
    • Bluish-gray teeth – Amber-colored teeth – Bulbous teeth crowns
    • Absent tooth roots – canals – pulp chambers
    • Too small tooth roots – canals – pulp chambers
    • Enamel separation from the ivory (dentin)
    • Misaligned teeth – Recurring dental abscess – Brittle bones – Blue sclera
    81. Generalized gray discoloration in a 28 years old patient’s teeth, with blue sclera and an enlarged pulp chambers and short roots, and multiple fractures in Enamel… the diagnosis is :
    A) Dentinogenesis Imperfecta. ***
    B) Amelogenesis Imperfecta
    82. X- ray show large pulp chamber, thin dentine layer and enamel:
    a- Dentogerous imperfect.
    b- Dentine dysplasia.
    السؤال ناقص غالباً ولا يكفي للتمييز بين الخيارين.
    حسب Dental Decks – page 998 يكون اللب التاجي والجذري متكلساً جزئياً أو كلياً.
    وحسب ويكيبيديا هناك 3 أنماط لسوء تصنع العاج الوراثي النمط الثالث منها يتميز بحجرة لب واسعة بعكس النوعين الآخرين.
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dentinogenesis_imperfecta
    Type I and II show total obliteration of the pulp chamber.
    Type III shows thin dentin and extremely enormous pulp chamber.These teeth are usually known as Shell Teeth.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dentin_dysplasia
    Type 1: Roots are short, blunt and conical. In deciduous teeth, pulp chambers and root canals are completely obliterated in permanent they may be crescent shaped.
    Type 2: The pulp chamber of the deciduous teeth become obliterated in deciduous teeth. While in permanent teeth, large pulp chamber is seen in coronal portion of the tooth – referred to as thistle tube appearance.Pulp stones may be found.
    .
    83. Lesion at junction between hard and soft palate and surrounded with psudoepithelium hyperplasia in salivary gland:
    A) hyperplasia in salivary gland.
    B) necrotizing sialometaplasia. ***

    84. Treacher collins syndrome characterized by
    -PROGNTHESIA OF MANDIBLE. تقدم فك سفلي
    -NO EAR LOSS
    -UPWARD SLUTING OF EYE
    -MALAR BONE NOT WELL FORMED OR ABSENCE. ***

    متلازمة تريشلر كولينز:
    شكل السمكة للوجه بسبب ضمور العظم الوجني underdeveloped cheek bone – ميلان العينين للأسفل – تراجع الفك السفلي للخلف – تشوه صيوان الاذن – حنك مشقوق.
    المصدر: ويكيبيديا
    Treacher Collins syndrome – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia ، Treacher-Collins Syndrome-A Challenge For Aaesthesiologists Goel L, Bennur SK, Jambhale S – Indian J Anaesth

    85. Treacher – Collins syndrome is mainly:
    1/ mandibular retrognathia. ***
    2/ loss of hearing (50% of cases)

    86. Patient present with deficiency at the malar bone+open bite+normal mental abilities;
    1-treacher cholins. ***
    2-cleidocrenial dyspasia
    3-eagle syndrome
    4-……

    87. A female patient came to your clinic with dry lips and mouth and bilateral submandibular oedema and ocular dryness. Diagnosis is:
    a)Polymorphecadenoma
    b) sialotitis***
    or: Sjögren’s syndrome‏ if present

    88. A child patient undergone pulpotomy in your clinic in1st primary molar. Next day the patient returned with ulcer on the right side of the lip… your diagnosis is:
    a) Apthosis
    b) Zonal herpes
    c) traumatic ulcer*** العض على الشفة

    89. Persons who are working in glass factories they have the disease:
    1. Silicosis.. ***silica disease
    2. Asepsis.

    http://www.silicosisclaims.com/about.html
    Silicosis, or silica disease, is especially common among the workers whose occupations expose them to extremely high levels of crystalline silica dust for long durations. Some of the common occupations or types of workers at risk of silica disease due to crystalline silica dust exposure include: Glass Workers
    90. Acute abscess is:
    a) Cavity lined by epithelium.
    B) Cavity containing blood cells.
    C) Cavity containing pus cells. ***
    d) Cavity containing fluid.

    MASTER DENTISTRY- Oral and Maxillofacial, Surgery, Radilolgy, Pathology and Oral Medicine
    An abscess is a pathological cavity filled with pus and lined by a pyogenic membrane.
    أما الناسور (يترافق مع الخراج المزمن) فهو مبطن بنسيج بشروي epithelium
    المرجع Pathway of the pulp 9ed 1st ص15.
    وكذلك الكيس بطانته بشروية

    91. After u did upper& lower complete denture 4 old pt. He came back 2 the clinic next day complaining of un comfort with the denture. After u re check ,no pain, good occlusion, good pronunciations , but u notice beginning of inflammation in the gum and outer margins of the lips , u will think this is due to:
    1- xerostomia.
    2-vit-B deficiency

    Xerostomia can cause difficulty in speech and eating. It also leads to halitosis and a dramatic rise in the number of cavities, as the protective effect of saliva’s remineralizing the enamel is no longer present, and can make the mucosa and periodontal tissue of the mouth more vulnerable to infection

    92. An 8 years old child, suffered a trauma at the TMJ region as enfant. Complaining now from limitation in movement of the mandible. Diagnosis is:
    a) Sub luxation

    93. b) Ankylosis. ***

    94. Genralised lymphadenopathy seen in
    a- infection
    b- lymphocytic leukemia
    c- HIV
    d- perncious anemia
    a+b
    a+b+c. ***
    only d
    b+d
    Causes of generalized lymphadenopathy
    Infection :
    Viral : Infectious mononucleosis, Infective hepatitis, AIDS
    Bacterial : Tuberculosis, Brucellosis, 2ry syphilis
    Protozoal : Toxoplasmosis
    Fungal : Histoplasmosis
    Malignant : Leukaemia – Lymphoma – Metastatic carcinoma
    Immunological : Systemic lupus erythematosus – Felty’s syndrome – Still’s disease
    Drug hypersensitivity as Hydantoin, Hydralazine, Allopurinol
    Misc. : Sarcoidosis – Amyloidosis – Lipid storage disease – Hyperthyroidism

    Q- most comon site which drain pus is:
    a) mandibular central incisors
    b)mandibular canines
    c) mandibular first molar. ***
    d)……..

    Came to the clinic complaining from pain related to swelling on maxillary central incisor area with vital to under percussion?
    1/ periapical cyst
    2/incisive cyst( nasopalatin cyst). ***
    3/ globulomaxillary cyst
    4/ aneurysmalbone cyst

    White lesion bilaterally on cheek,& other member in the family has it
    -leukoplakia
    -white sponge nevus. ***
    others
    Dental Decks – page 1336
    “Burket- Oral medicine”
    White sponge nevus presents as bilateral symmetric white, soft, “spongy,” or velvety thick plaques of the buccal mucosa. وحسب هذا المرجع تصنف ضمن الآفات الوراثية
    And
    White sponge nevus, also known as Cannon’s disease, Hereditary leukokeratosis of mucosa, and White sponge nevus of Cannon[1] appears to follow a hereditary pattern as an autosomal dominant trait.[2]:807 Although it is congenital in most cases, it can occur in childhood or adolescence.
    It presents in the mouth, most frequently as a thick bilateral white plaque with a spongy texture, usually on the buccal mucosa, but sometimes on the labial mucosa, alveolar ridge or floor of the mouth

    1. Head and neck neviعلامة خلقية with multi lesion is:
    1/Eagle syndrome.
    2/Albert syndrome. *** (Albright syndrome)
    لا يوجد متلازمة باسم Albert بل يوجد كل من Apert و Albright
    حسب أكسفورد ص 795: متلازمة آلبرايت: تتألف من سوء تصنع عظمي ليفي متعدد وتصبغ جلد بقعي يشبه بقع القهوة بحليب وتشوهات بالغدد الصماء وعدم تناظر وجه في 25% من الحالات.
    194) Pregnant 25 years, bleeding on probing, location on papilla of anterior area of the maxilla, Isolated:
    A)giant cell granuloma
    B) pyogenic granuloma (pregnancy epulis). ***
    C) giant cell granuloma

    48 – Child patient presented with swelling in the buccal and palatal maxillary anterior area tow days ago, the pathology of the lesion there is a giant cell, what is the diagnosis:
    1. Giantضخم granuloma.
    2. Hemangioma.
    3. ….
    http://www.turkishjournalpediatrics.org/?fullTextId=227&lang=eng
    Central giant cell granuloma (CGCG) is a benign intraosseous lesion of the jaws that is found predominantly in children and young adults. Although benign, it may be locally aggressive, causing extensive bone destruction, tooth displacement and root resorption.

    51 – Child with anodontia and loss of body hair, the diagnosis is:
    1. Down’s syndrome.
    2. Ectodermal dysplasia. ***
    3. Fructose …..
    4. Diabetic ….

    95. Cholesterol crystals are found in:
    a. Keratocyst. *** كيسة متقرنة
    b. Periodontal cyst
    MASTER DENTISTRY- Oral and Maxillofacial, Surgery, Radilolgy, Pathology and Oral Medicine
    radicular cysts contain brown shimmering fluid because of the presence of the cholesterol crystals, whereas odontogenic keratocysts contain pale greasy fluid, which may include keratotic squames.
    http://ses.library.usyd.edu.au/bitst…z%20Iqubal.pdf
    Cholesterol crystals are found in many odontogenic cysts including Radicular cysts, dentigerous cysts, and odontogenic keratocysts.
    And
    Probable keratocyst in a mandible from the late Roman era — Chimenos-K
    The cyst wall shows nicks produced by cholesterol crystals, inflammatory cells, calcifications and satellite microcysts.
    الأكيد أن الكولستيرول يوجد في الأكياس ذات المنشأ السني وليس الرباطي، وإذا وجد خيار Apical periodontal cyst or Radicular cyst أي كيس ناتج عن إنتان اللب أو كيس جذري، فيكون هو الخيار االمفضل، لأن Odontogenic keratocyst صحيح هي كيسة من منشأ سني ولكنها كيسة تطورية وليست ناتجة عن إنتان اللب.
    23-Child with cleft palate and cleft lip with anodontia due to:
    a- Van der woude syndrome. ***
    b- Treacher Collins syndrome.
    c- Paget disease.
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Van_der_Woude_syndrome
    Van Der Woude syndrome (VDWS) is a genetic disorder. People with VDWS have cleft lipwith or without cleft palate, isolated cleft palate, pits or mucous cysts on the lower lip, andhypodontia. Affected individuals have normal intelligence

    26-Which condition is an apical lesion that develop acute exacerbation of chronic apical abscess(chronic suppurative apical periodontits):
    a- Granuloma
    b- Phoenix abscess. ***(recrudescent abscess)
    c- Cyst
    d- Non of above

    Dental decks – p age 165مهمممممممم حرفياً

    96. Cavernous sinus thrombosis not manifested as:
    infra orbital syndrome.
    Syncope due to atrial obliteration. ***
    eye exophthalmos.

    MCQs in Dentistr
    y Cawson – page 131Cavernous sinus thrombosis: may follow infection from the ptyrogid venous plexus.
    Dental Secrets – page 263
    Cavernous sinus thrombosis:
    Patients present with proptosis (eye exophthalmos), orbital swelling, neurologic signs, and fever.

    97. Apical periodontal cyst arise from:
    a. Hertwig sheath. غمد هيرتفغ
    b. Epithelial cell rest of molasses. ***
    CLINICAL PATHOLOGICAL CORRELATIONS, 4TH EDITION, PAGE 241
    Apical periodontal cyst= periapical cyst = radicular cyst: these inflammatory cysts derive their epithelial lining from the proliferation of small odontogenic epithelial residues (rests of Malassez) within the PDL.
    الأكياس الذروية والجذرية الجانبية تحصل على بطانتها الظهارية من تكاثر بقايا ظهارة سنية المنشأ malassaz.
    أما الأكياس حول السنية فمن غمد هرتفغ.
    98. Epithelial cells
    a. Rest of malassez decrease with age. ***
    b. Rest of malassez increase with age
    c. Hertwig sheath entirely disappear after dentinogenesis.
    d. Epithelial remnants could proliferate to periapical granuloma
    تم ارسال السوال في المنتدا ومكتوب ايضا تحت السوال 15

    Q 141 -Formation of latral periodontal cyst due to
    a-Nasolacrimal cyst
    b-Hertwig’s epithelial root sheath
    c-Epithelial rest of maLassaz
    ****d-The epithelial rests or glands of Serres
    ارسل بالمنتدا السوال 16

    99. Formation of periodontal cyst due to:
    a. Nasolacrimal cyst. أنفي دمعي
    b. Hertiwigs. ***
    c. Epithelial rest of malassaz.
    d. Peals of serres.

    Oral Pathology – 4th Ed. (2005) J. V. Soames Professor of Oral Pathology University of Newcastle upon Tyne UK
    And
    J. C. Southam Emeritus Professor of Oral Medicine and Oral Pathology University of Edinburgh UK

    http://obm.quintessenz.de/index.php?doc=html&abstractID=9558

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epithelial_cell_rests_of_Malassez
    In dentistry, the epithelial cell rests of Malassez or epithelial rests of Malassez (frequently abbreviated as ERM) are part of the periodontal ligament cells around a tooth. They are discrete clusters of residual cells from Hertwig’s epithelial root sheath (HERS) that didn’t completely disappear. It is considered that these cell rests proliferate to form epithelial lining of various odontogenic cysts such as radicular cyst under the influence of various stimuli. They are named after Louis-Charles Malassez (1842–1909) who described them. Some rests become calcified in the periodontal ligament (cementicles)
    بقايا ملاسية جزء من الرباط حول السني وهي تتمايز عن ما تبقى من خلايا من غمد هرتفغ، وهي التي تتكاثر لتشكل البشرة المبطنة للأكياس سنية المنشأ كالكيس الجذري، وبعض البقايا تتكلس في الرباط فتكون الخلايا الملاطية.

    100. Which is the most Likely cause of periodontal cyst?
    a. Cell Rest of Malassez.
    b. Cell rest of serss.
    c. Cell of Hertwig sheath. ***

    Dental secrets – page 66
    19. What is the difference between a lateral radicular cyst and a lateral periodontal cyst?
    A lateral radicular cyst is an inflammatory cyst in which the epithelium is derived from rests of Malassez (like a periapical or apical radicular cyst). It is in a lateral rather than an apical location because the inflammatory stimulus is emanating from a lateral canal. The associated tooth is always nonvital. The lateral periondontal cyst is a developmental cyst in which the epithelium probably is derived from rests of dental lamina. It is usually located between the
    mandibular premolars, which are vital.

    الأسئلة التالية حول Squamous cell carcinoma وقد وجدت ضرورة العودة لأكثر من مرجع للإجابة عن هذه الأسئلة:

    بالبداية.. فقرة مترجمة من كتاب Cawson Essintials of Oral Pathology and Oral Medicine 7th ed عن سرطان الفم والشفة:
    العوامل المسببة: التبغ والكحول – أشعة الشمس – الإنتانات – أمراض بالغشاء المخاطي – اضطرابات وراثية.
    السرطانات المبكرة البدئية تظهر بشكل لويحات حمراء أو بيضاء أو قرحات ضحلة وهي غير مؤلمة.
    فيما بعد تبدو وبتقدم السرطانات تظهر بشكل قرحات ذات حواف مستديرة متبارزة وقاسية وتصبح مؤلمة.
    الحواف الجانبية الخلفية من اللسان هي الموقع الأكثر شيوعاً ضمن الفم (أكثر من 70% من سرطانات الفم تتشكل على الحواف الجانبية للسان والحافة السنخية المجاورة وقاع الفم)
    أكثر من 95% من سرطانات الفم هي سرطانات شائكة الخلايا متمايزة بشكل جيد أو معتدلة التمايز.

    101. Squamous cell carcinoma is derived from:
    a. Epithelial tissue. ***
    b. Connective tissue.

    102. Most common site of squamous cell carcinoma:
    a. Postero-lateral border of tongue.
    b. Floor of the mouth.
    c. Buccal mucosa.
    d. Lip. ***
    e. Skin.

    103. Most common site of oral squamous cell carcinoma:
    a. Postero-lateral border of tongue. ***
    b. Floor of the mouth.
    c. Buccal mucosa.
    d. Lip.
    e. Skin.

    Oral pathology clinical pathologic correlation,3rd edition, Page 71-72
    Dental Secrets – page 35 :
    The posterior lateral and ventral surfaces of the tongue are the most common sites of intraoral cancer.

    104. The majority of introral squamous cell carcinomas are histologically:
    a. Poorly differentiated.
    b. Well moderately differentiated. *** متمايزة لحد ما
    c. Spindle cell in type. مغزلية الشكل
    d. Carcinoma in situation.

    105. Squamous cell carcinoma is multifactorial: متعددة العوامل
    a. True. ***
    b. False.

    78. Early squamous cell carcinoma of oral cavity present as:
    a. Vesicle. حويصلي
    b. Sessile mass. كتل دون عنق
    c. A red plaque.
    d. An ulcer. ***
    e. Red plaque. ***
    f. A white cauliflower like lesion

    Oxford Handbook of Clinical Dentistry – 4th Ed. (2005) – page 247
    SCC:
    Clinical appearance Most often seen as a painless ulcer, although may present as a swelling, an area of leukoplakia, erythroleukoplakia or erythroplakia (A reddened patch), or as malignant change of long-standing benign tumours or rarely in cyst linings. Pain is usually a late feature when the lesion becomes superinfected or during eating of spicy foods. Referred otalgia is a common manifestation of pain from oral cancer. The ulcer is described as firm with raised edges, with an indurated, inflamed, granular base and is fixed to surrounding tissues.
    من النص السابق يتضح أن صفات السرطانة حرشفية الخلايا SCC هي كل من قرحة غير مؤلمة وبقع حمراء.
    إذا جواب هذا السؤال هو ما يرد من هذين الخيارين لكن الأسبق هو البقع الحمراء.
    أما بقية الصفات فخاطئة لأن SCC يتميز بحواف مرتفعة ثابتة بقاعدة صلبة حبيبية، وحسب Burket- Oral medicine – page 553 عن الورم الحليمي شائك الخلايا SCP فالصفة ” A white cauliflower like lesion” :
    Squamous cell papillomas may present as exophytic pedunculated papules with a cauliflower-like appearance.

    52. Firm, fixed neck nodes are most to be detected in association with:
    a. An ameloblastoma
    b. A basal cell carcinoma
    c. An odontogenic fibroma
    d. A squamous cell carcinoma. ***

    106. Stage Ib disease of squamous cell carcinoma:
    A-T1 NO MO
    b-T3 NO MO
    c- T2 NO MO. ***
    d-T4 NO MO

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Non-small_cell_lung_carcinoma
    Grouping TNM staging
    Occult carcinoma TX N0 M0
    Stage 0 Tis N0 M0
    Stage IA T1 N0 M0
    Stage IB T2 N0 M0
    Stage IIA T1 N1 M0
    Stage IIB T2 N1 M0
    T3 N0 M0
    Stage IIIA T1 N2 M0
    T2 N2 M0
    T3 N1 M0
    T3 N2 M0
    Stage IIIB Any T N3 M0
    T4 Any N M0
    Stage IV Any T Any N M1

    Grouping Survival rate (percents)
    One year Two years Three years Four years Five years
    IA 82% 79% 71% 67% 61%
    IB 72% 54% 46% 41% 38%
    IIA 79% 49% 38% 34% 34%
    IIB 59% 41% 33% 26% 24%
    IIIA 50% 25% 18% 14% 13%
    IIIB 34% 13% 7% 6% 5%
    IV 19% 6% 2% 2% 1%

    638. A question about Cleidocranial dysostosis characteristic:
    Partly or completely missing collarbonesعظم الترقوة. If the collarbones are completely missing or reduced to small vestigesاثار, this allows hypermobility of the shoulders including ability to touch the shoulders together in front of the chest.A soft spot or larger soft area in the top of the head where the fontanelle failed to close.

    Bones and joints are underdeveloped. People are shorter and their frames are smaller than their siblings who do not have the condition.
    The permanent teeth include supernumerary teeth. Unless these supernumeraries are reabsorbed before adolescence, they will crowd the adult teeth in what already may be an underdeveloped jaw. In that case, the supernumeraries will probably need to be removed to provide space for the adult teeth.
    Permanent teeth not erupting
    Bossing (bulging) of the forehead.
    Hypertelorism

    pt came with multiple cyst on his scalp and nick and osteomas on his mandible , and multiple ……….. on his both mandible sides,, wt is the diagnosis:
    gardner syndrome –
    cleidocranial dysplasia
    ectodermal dystosis
    oesteogenesis imperfecta

    تصحيييح

    To drain submandibular abscess:
    a) Intraorally through the mylohyoid muscles.
    B) Extraorally under the chin.
    C) Extraorally at the most purulent site.
    D) Extraorally at the lower border of the mandible. ***
    dental decks 1982
    المشاركة الأصلية كتبت بواسطة dr.fahd
    تصحيييح

    To drain submandibular abscess:
    a) Intraorally through the mylohyoid muscles.
    B) Extraorally under the chin.
    C) Extraorally at the most purulent site.
    D) Extraorally at the lower border of the mandible. ***
    dental decks 1982

    د ماسترو يا د.فهد أرجو التأكد من صفحة المرجع، الصفحة 1982 تحوي معلومات عن التخدير.

    الصفحة الصحيحة 1928 dental decks

    ) مريضة بعمر 55 سنة تعاني من نقص في اللعاب مع تشقق بالشفاه وجفاف في العيون و….. :
    * متلازمة سوغرين

    ) مريض راجع بعد حادث سير وبعد الكشف وجدنا كسر بأحد الأسنان الأمامية مع حركة وشعاعيا تبن وجود كسر أفقي مع تباعد الجزين ما هو الإجراء المتخذ:
    * معالجة القسم التاجي لبيا وإزالة القسم الجذري جراحيا
    * معالجة القسم الجذر لبيا وقلع القسم التاجي
    * قلع كامل السن
    * ربط القسمين بعد معالجتهما لبيا بوتد
    ( طبعا غير مذكور مكان الكسر ولا درجة الحركة يعني مخليها مفتوحة )

    6) Diabatic pt with multiple naevi on the neck and the scalp , and multiple jaw cyst,,,, ur diagnosis will be:
    – Eagle syndrome.
    – Gorlin – Goltz syndrome.***
    – Pierre Robin syndrome.
    – Non of the above.
    Gorlin-Goltz syndrome, also known as nevoid basal cell carcicoma syndrome, is caused due to a genetic alteration produced by a mutation in the “Patched” tumor suppressor gene, and it is inherited in a dominant autosomal way, though sporadic cases have been found. This syndrome shows a high penetrance and variable expressiveness. It is a multisystemic process that is characterized by the presence of multiple pigmented basocellular carcinomas, keratocysts in the jaws, palmar and/or plantar pits and calcification of the falx cerebri. Together with these major features, a great number of processes considered as minor features have also been described. The latter include numerous skeletal, dermatology related and neurological anomalies, among others. In some occasions, the presence of very aggressive basocellular carcinomas has been described as well as other malignant neoplasia. Due to the importance of oral maxillofacial manifestations of this syndrome, it is fundamental to know its characteristics in order to make a diagnosis, to provide an early preventive treatment and to establish right genetic advice. We report a rare association of Gorlin-Goltz syndrome with situs oppositus.

    pathology

    السوال الاول. Intraosseous cyst in radiograph appears:
    1/multiradiolucent may or not expand to cortical bone.***هذه صح
    2/radiopaque may or not expand to cortical bone.
    3/multiradiolucent may with resoption of cortical bone.****
    4/radiopaque may with resoption of cortical bone.

    cyst ماتعمل رسوربشن بالعضم
    Central intraosseous ameloblastomas may perforate bone and present a similar pattern.

    السوال الثاني-pt with renal transplantation came with white elevated lesion on tongue no history of smoking or tobacco chewing diagnosis is:
    a-candidiasis****هذه الاجابه الصحيحه
    B-iatrogenic lesion.****
    c-hyperkeratosis
    D-stomatitis

    لان المريض يعطى الستيرويد وتكون مناعته ضعيفه فتكون احتماليه اصابته
    كبيره candidiasis

    بعتقد الاجابة b-iatrogenic lesion*****
    oxford – 511

    بالمتحان الاول اجاني سؤال مريض الحلأ هيربيس سيمبلس شو الجرعة اللي بتعطيها …….السوال الثالث
    هلأ=داالحين (بالسعودي)اجاني سؤال طفل معو هيربيس سيمبلس مع الم شديد وكاتبينلك بالسؤال انو بتعطيه السيكلوفير السؤال انو مع شو بتشاركو ………….
    1 فيتامينc مع شي
    2مخدر موضعي Local anestheticمع فيتامين مركبMulti-Vitamin
    3مخدر موضعي مع بروتين………….
    انا بسبب الالم اخترت مخدر موضعي …..مع شو ؟حطيت الاحتمال 2

    طفل مصاب بحلأ بسيط مؤلم، العلاج سيكلوفير مع:
    1 فيتامينc مع …
    2مخدر موضعي Local anestheticمع فيتامين مركبMulti-Vitamin
    3مخدر موضعي مع بروتين………….
    كتاب الأطفال ص 335:
    إذا كانت الآفات مؤلمة جداً بحيث يصبح تناول الطعالم صعباً قد يكون التخدير الموضعي مفيداً.

    السوال الرابعCavernous sinus thrombosis not manifested as:
    infra orbital syndrome.
    Syncope due to atrial obliteration.XXX
    eye exophthalmos.

    Cavernous sinus thrombosis دائما تترافق مع vien ,وليس artrial

    يعني الاجابة الصحيحة هي Syncope due to atria.XXXl obliteration
    نعتمد الاجابة انشاء الله

    السوال الخامسPost-graduate student use mta the prognosis depend on prevent
    a) immediate suture
    b) disturbance during closure of wound
    c) using a flab

    12- X- ray show large pulp chamber, thin dentine layer and enamel: السوال السادس
    a- Dentogerous imperfect****
    b- Dentine dysplasia
    Dentinogenesis imperfecta, classified into three subtypes, occurs in about 1 in 8,000 newborns in the U.S. The teeth can be bluish or brownish with a somewhat translucent appearance. On x-ray, the teeth of patients with dentinogenesis imperfecta III (DGI-III) appear as ‘shell teeth,’ with a layer of enamel, a thin layer of dentin, and very large pulp chambers. Because of the unstable dentin, the enamel can shear off and expose the dentin, which could then wear down to the pulp. Most of those severely affected with DGI-III are candidates for dentures or implants by age 30 despite dental intervention

    السوال السابعchild with previous history of minor trauma with excessive bleeding we do test the result is prolong PT & slightly increase clotting time &……
    test is +ve the diagnosis is
    a.hemophelia B
    b.thrombocytopenia****
    c.vit.K def****
    ………..مسا

    الجواب هوا c

    dental secrets – page 274
    A clot may fail to form because of a quantitative or functional platelet
    deficiency. The former is most readily assessed by obtaining a platelet count. The
    normal platelet count is 200,000—500,000 cells/mm3 Prolonged bleeding may
    occur if platelets fall below 100,000 cells/ mm3. Treatment of severe
    thrombocytopenia may require platelet transfusion. Qualitative platelet dysfunction
    most often results from aspirin ingestion and is most commonly measured by
    determining the bleeding time. Prolonged bleeding time requires consultation with
    a hematologist

    تصحيح نهائي لسؤال الإطباق المؤقت والدائم:

    107. السوال الثامنOne of the main features of acute herpetic gingivostomatitis is the ulcers are confined to the attached gingival and hard palate:
    a. True.
    b. False. ***

    Although most HSV-1 infections are subclinical, a small percentage of patients develop primary herpetic gingivostomatitis.1 Typical symptoms include abrupt onset of fever, anorexia, irritability and intense mouth pain. Patients develop oral lesions of the attached and movable mucosal surfaces in which vesicles develop and quickly break down, coalescing to form large painful ulcerations. The gingivae become erythematous and tender.
    Acute oral ulcerations — Treister and Lerman 138 (4): 499 — The Journal of the American Dental Association

    108. سؤال التاسع عن مريض يعاني من التهابات حادة في attached gingiva وعمر المريض 18 سنة وكانت نفسيته تعبانة نتيجة ضغوط في حياته… الاختيارات
    aphthous ulcer
    recurrent herpes ulcer
    allergic stomatitis

    109. السوال العاشرAcyclovir dose for treatments of herpes:
    a) 200 mg / 5 times a day.
    Burket- Oral medicine – Cawson Essintials of Oral Pathology
    b) 200 mg / 4 times a day
    c) 400 mg / 4 times a day. Dental Decks
    d) 800 mg / 4 times a day
    In case of immunodeficiency double the dose to 400 mg
    Dental Decks: 400 mg / 4 times a day
    “Cawson Essintials of Oral Pathology and Oral Medicine 7th ed”
    يعطى الأسيكلوفير 200 ملغ خمس مرات لمدة سبعة أيام
    Burket- Oral medicine – page 551
    Treatment for HSV-1 infections usually consists of acyclovir (200 mg orally five times daily).

    110. السوال 11Which virus is present in the patient’s mouth all his Life?
    a. Herpes Simplex
    b. Herpes zoster
    c. Varecilla Virus
    d. None of the above ***

    Herpes Simplex – Symptoms, Treatment and Prevention
    Cold sores are caused by the Herpes Simplex Virus. Once infected, they plague وباء the patient for life.
    Herpes can be treated but not cured غير متعالج. Symptoms appear briefly and then disappear; the disease lies dormant ثابت in nerve cells, but it may be reactivated by stress or illness.
    Shingles
    Shingles is caused by the varicella zoster virus, which also causes chickenpox. If you have had chickenpox, the varicella virus remains in a group of nerves in your central nervous system, but doesn’t cause any symptoms. This is called a dormant virus. The central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord, which are connected to the nerves in the body. When the virus becomes active again, it causes the symptoms of shingles.
    eMedicine – Varicella-Zoster Virus : Article by Wayne E Anderson
    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is the cause of chickenpox and herpes zoster (also called shingles).

    الفيروس الذي يسكن الجسم مدى الحياة (لا يسكن الفم): هو Herpes Simplex (HSV1)

    السوال12Pt come with bristle even on mucous membrane, u asked for immune test:
    pemphigus
    bullos pemphigoid
    lichen planus

    111. السوال 13Which cyst is not radiolucent?
    a. Globulomaxillary cyst. كيس فكي علوي كروي
    b. Follicular cyst. جريبي
    c. Dentigerous cyst. *** حاوي على سن
    d. Nasopalatine cyst. القناة الحنكية الأنفية
    لأنه يحوي سن فهو ظليل.
    112. Radiolucent are cover the pericornal part of the 3rd molar is:
    a- Dentigerous cyst
    b- Central

    113. السوال 14Odontogenic infection can cause least complication: أقل الاختلاطات لأسباب سنية
    a. Pulmonary abscess. خراج رئوي
    b. Peritonitis. التهاب الصفاق
    c. Prosthetic valve infection. إنتان صمام بديل
    d. Cavernous sinus thrombosis. خثرة الجيب الكهفي

    520. Odontogenic infection can cause least complication: أقل الاختلاطات لأسباب سنية
    a. Pulmonary abscess. خراج رئوي
    b. Peritonitis. التهاب الصفاق
    c. Prosthetic valve infection. إنتان صمام بديل
    d. Cavernous sinus thrombosis. خثرة الجيب الكهفي

    Dental Secrets – page 260
    What are the significant complications of untreated Odontogenic infection?
    • Tooth loss • Spread to the cavernous sinus and brain • Spread to the neck with large vein complications • Spread to potential fascial spaces with compromise of the airway
    • Septic shock
    بالنسبه لهذا السؤال الجواب هو الثاني لان الصفاق هو الغشاء الذي يغلف اغلب اجزاء البطن ونادرا جدا ما يصاب بالتهاب من الحفره الفمويه
    Dental Secrets – page 260
    What are the significant complications of untreated Odontogenic infection?
    • Tooth loss • Spread to the cavernous sinus and brain • Spread to the neck with large vein complications • Spread to potential fascial spaces with compromise of the airway
    • Septic shock

    114. السوال 15Epithelial cells
    a. Rest of malassez decrease with age. ***
    b. Rest of malassez increase with age
    c. Hertwig sheath entirely disappear after dentinogenesis.
    d. Epithelial remnants could proliferate to periapical granuloma

    Q 141 السوال 16-Formation of latral periodontal cyst due to
    a-Nasolacrimal cyst
    b-Hertwig’s epithelial root sheath
    c-Epithelial rest of maLassaz
    ****d-The epithelial rests or glands of Serres

    السوال 17The difference between cellulitis and abscess:
    a. Cellulitis acute stage with diffuse selling no pus
    b. ..

    115. السوال 18cleidocranial dysostosis characteristic:
    a) supernumerary of teeth.
    b) Clevical problems.

    116. السوال 19You should treat ANUG until the disease completely removed. 2. Otherwise, it will change to necrotic ulcerative gingivitis.
    A) Both sentences are true.***
    B) Both sentences are false.
    C) 1st true, 2nd false.***
    D) 1st false, 2nd true.
    حسب أكسفورد ص241
    التهاب اللثة التقرحي الحاد AUG المعالج بشكل غير كافي يمكن أن يتحول إلى الشكل الأقل أعراضاً والذي يعرف بالتهاب اللثة التقرحي المزمن CUG
    إذاً الجواب: التهاب لثة تقرحي تموتي مزمن Chronic necrotic ulcerative gingivitis
    Burket- Oral medicine – page 63
    The patient must be made aware that, unless the local etiologic factors of the disease are removed, ANUG may return or become chronic and lead to periodontal disease.
    أو هل يوجد شيء اسمه necrotic ulcerative gingivitis أي NUG؟؟

    السوال20Q-The nasopalatine bone forms a triangle will be parallel to an imaginary lines extended between cemento-enamel junctions of adjacent teeth
    True
    Fals

    117. السوال21Histopathologically, early verrucous carcinomas:
    a. Have characteristic microscopic features. ***
    b. Can be confused with acute hypertrophic candidiasis
    c. Can be confused with Lichen planus
    d. Can be confused with chronic hypertrophic candidiasis

    Oral pathology clinical pathologic correlation,3rd edition,Page 170-171,
    مو واضح بس في الكتاب كان قايل انه له distinct microscopic appearence وما قال انه Histopathologically يشبه acute or chronic candidiasis او lichen planus …

    -السوال22pt with renal transplantation came with white elevated lesion on tongue no history of smoking or tobacco chewing diagnosis is:
    a-candidiasis
    B-iatrogenic lesion. ***
    c-hyperkeratosis
    D-stomatitis

    Pocket atlas of oral diseases
    Uremic Stomatitis
    Definition Uremic stomatitis is a rare disorder that may occur in patients with acute or chronic renal failure – no smoking
    في حاجة اسمها nasolabial cycte… هذة ما بتبان في الاشعة ..يمكن ما كتبها الي حاطط السؤال ..او نساها…فعشان كدا كنت بركز وانا بذاكر علي الموضوع نفسة.. واعرف كل الي بيتعلق بية…. ويارب يسهلها عليكم وتتوفقوا جميعا يارب…

    8)السول23 Salivary gland role in maintaining tooth and bacteria integrity on the oral cavity is done by:
    – Bacterial clearance.
    – remineralization.
    – Buffering and direct anti-bacterial role.
    – Bacterial clearance and reminerlization.***

    السوال24Pt come with bristle even on mucous membrane, u asked for immune test:
    pemphigus
    bullos pemphigoid
    lichen planus

    24. السوال 25The right corticosteroid daily dose for pemphigus vulgaris is:
    a- 1-2 g/kg/daily
    b- 1-2 mg/kg/daily
    c- 10 mg/kg/daily
    d- 50- 100 mg/kg/daily hydrocortisone.

    حل عبيدة

    السوال الخامس:علاج الفقاع الشائع بالستيروئيدات:

    1-2******مغ\كغ\اليوم

    2-1مغ\كغ\اليوم

    10-20مغ\كغ\اليوم

    50-100مغ\كغ\اليوم

    السؤال الخامس العلاج هو 50 – 100 مع يوميا
    لذلك فالاقرب هو 1 مع/كغ/يوميا اريد شرح للحل

    #82240
     brandy689 
    Participant

    1. One of anatomical land mark is:
    a. Ala tragus line. ***
    b. Ala orbital.
    c. Frank fort plane.
    مستوى كامبر هو المستوى الواصل بين أسفل الأنف وحلمة الأذن.

    2. Which cranial nerve that petrous part of temporal bone houses:
    a. Trigeminal n V. ثلاثي التوائم
    b. Facial n VII. *** الوجهي
    c. Vagus n IX. المبهم (العاشر)
    d. Vestibalcochealer n VII.
    أما العصب الذي يدخل من الثقبة البيضية للعظم الوتدي فهو مثلث التوائم

    3. Facial vii nerve supply: مهممم
    a. Masseter muscle.
    b. muscle.
    c. Buccinator muscle. ***
    d. Mylohyoid muscle.

    4. Mandibular branch of trigeminal nerve leaves the skull through:
    a. Foramen rotundum. الثقبة المدورة (للعظم الوتدي)
    b. Foramen ovale. *** الثقبة البيضاوية (للعظم الوتدي)
    c. Superior orbital fissure.
    d. Inferior orbital fissure.
    e. Jugular foramen. وداجية

    5. Foramen oval is in the following bone: النافذة البيضية
    a. ??????
    b. Temporal.
    c. Occipital.
    d. Sphenoid. ***

    61. Buccal branch of trigeminal V is:
    a. Sensory ***
    b. Motor
    c. Psychomotor
    d. Sensory and motor

    Buccal branch of facial VII is:
    a. Sensory
    b. Motor ***
    c. Mixed
    Buccal nerve – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    الفرع الخدي لمثلث التوائم هو العصب الخدي الطويل وهو عصب حسي يعصب الخد والمخاطية الدهليزية السفلية من ض2 حتى ر3.
    أما الفرع الخدي للعصب الوجهي فهو حركي مسؤول عن العضلة المبوقة إحدى عضلات التعبير الوجهي.

    6. The inferior alveolar nerve is branch of:
    1. Mandibular nerve – not divided***
    2. Posterior mandibular alveolar nerve.
    3. Anterior mandibular alveolar nerve.
    العصب السنخي السفلي هو فرع من الفكي السفلي وهو يدخل ثقبة الفك السفلي ويسير عبر القناة الفكية معصباً الأرحاء ثم يخرج من الثقبة الذقنية لينقسم إلى القاطعي (للقواطع) والذقني (للشفة)

    7. Occlusal plane is:
    a. Above the level of the tongue.
    b. Below the level of the tongue. ***
    المرجع: ” mcqs in Dentistry”
    ” the tongue rests on the occlusal surface”
    8. Lateral pterygoid muscle has how many origin:
    a. 1.
    b. 2. ***
    c. 5.
    d. 7.

    تتألف العضلة الجناحية الوحشية من رأس علوي ورأس سفلي.

    9. Embryo become fetus in: تتحول المضغة إلى جنين
    a. 1st week
    b. 1st month.
    c. 2nd month.
    d. 3rd month. *** في بداية الشهر الثالث

    10. All are single bone in the skull EXCEPT:
    a. Lacrimal. *** الدمعي
    b. Occipital. القذالي
    c. Sphenoid. الوتدي
    d. Parietal. الجداري

    11. Coronal suture is between: الدرز الإكليلي
    a. Occipital and temporal bone.
    b. Frontal and parietal bone. ***
    c. Occipital and tympanic bone.

    12. What is the number of pharyngeal “brancheal” arches:
    a. 4.
    b. 5.
    c. 6. ***
    d. 7.

    المرجع: ” Anatomy of the Human Body

    13. What is the name of pharyngeal “brancheal” arches:
    a. Maxillary.
    b. Mandibular. ***
    الأقواس البلعومية ستة أولها الفكي السفلي وثانيها اللامي Hyoid وتسمى البقية الثالث والرابع والخامس والسادس.
    Stomodeum السبيل الفمي اعلا من فتحة الفمand fugi separated by:
    1/frangeal arch
    2/ectodermal cleft

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stomodeum
    The stomodeum is lined by ectoderm, and is separated from the anterior end of the fore-gut by the buccopharyngeal membrane.
    حسب كتاب تقويم الأسنان ص 13-14
    في الأسبوع الثالث من الحمل تظهر ميزابة ميزابة سطحية عريضة يطلق عليها الفم الأولي stomodeum والذي ينفصل عن المعي الأمامي بواسطة غشاء دقيق يدعى (الغشاء البلعومي الفموي) buccopharyngeal membrane.
    يظهر الفم في البدء على شكل تقعر بسيط من الوريقة الخارجية تحيط به الأقواس الغلصمية ويسمى الفم الابتدائي ويعزل في البدء عن المعي الأمامي بغشاء ثنائي الوريقة هو الغشاء الفموي البلعومي، ويتألف هذا الغشاء من الوريقة الداخلية والخارجية ويتمزق ويختفي نحو اليوم الرابع والعشرين.

    1. Many parts of bones are originally cartilaginous that replaced by bone:
    a. True. ***
    b. False.

    14. Mental foramen appear in radiograph as radiolucent round area to the area of:
    a. Mandibular premolars. ***
    b. Mandibular incisors.
    c. Maxillary canine.

    15. Oral diaphragm consist mainly of: الحجاب الفموي (قاع الفم)
    a. Tongue.
    b. Geniohyoid muscle. الذقنية اللامية
    c. Digastric muscle. العضلة ذات البطنين
    d. Mylohyoid muscle. *** الضرسية اللامية

    16. Masseter muscle extends from lower of border zygomatic arch to lateral border of ramus and angel mandible. العضلة الماضغة تمتد من القوس الوجني إلى جسم الرأد وزاويته
    a. True. ***
    b. False.
    Dental Decks – page 416
    17. Extend of temporalis behind infratemporal fossa of temporal bone insert in coronoid process: الامتداد الصدغي خلف الحفرة تحت الصدغ للعظم الصدغي يدخل في الناتئ الإكليلاني
    a. True. ***
    b. False.

    18. Main arterial supply in face is facial artery and superficial temporal artery:
    a. True. ***
    b. False.

    19. Mandible is the 1st bone calcified in skull but clavicle start first but in same embryological time: الترقوة
    a. True. ***
    b. False.

    20. Mandible formed before frontal bone:
    a. True.***
    b. False.

    ملاحظتك صحيحة دكتور
    لما أجد مرجع يرتب تشكل عظام الجمجمة ترتيباً دقيقاً حسب تشكلها بالحياة الجنينية
    جواب السؤال الثاني هو الخيار الأول بناءً على ربط السؤالين ببعض.
    الترقوة ثم الفك السفلي ثم العظم الجبهي والفك العلوي
    21.
    22. Maxilla is formed
    a. before mandible
    b. same with mandible
    c. slightly after mandible. ***
    d. none of the above

    23. Development of maxillary process and medial frontal process in medial elongation of central portion:
    a. True.
    b. False. ***

    24. Some bone are formed by
    endochondral ossification like long bone,
    flat bone by intramembranous ossification and
    some bone by endochondral and intramembranous ossification: داخل الغضروف وداخل الغشاء
    a. True. ***
    b. False.

    25. Flat bone grow by endochondral ossification:
    a. True.
    b. False. ***
    من العظام المسطحة الجداري وهي تنمو بالتعظم الغشائي لا الغضروفي.

    26. Mastoid process is a part of: الناتئ الخشائي
    a. Temporal bone. *** الصدغي
    b. Parietal bone. الجداري
    c. Occipital bone. القذالي

    27. Parotid duct opens opposite in 2nd Mandibular molars: القناة النكفية
    a. True.
    b. False. ***
    تفتح قناة الغدة النكفية للدهليزي من الرحى الثانية العلوية.
    28. parotid DUCT is opposite to
    maxilary premolar
    maxilary 1st molar
    maxilary 2nd molar
    mandibular 1st molar

    The parotid duct, also known as Stensen’s duct, is the route that saliva takes from the parotid gland into the mouth.
    It passes through the buccal fat, buccopharyngeal fascia, and buccinator muscle then opens into the vestibule of the mouth next to the maxillary second molar tooth. The buccinator acts as a valve that prevents inflation of the duct during blowing. Running along with the duct superiorly is the transverse facial artery and upper buccal nerve; running along with the duct inferiorly is the lower buccal nerve

    29. Palate consists of:
    a. Palatine and sphenoid bone. الوتدي
    b. Palatine and maxillary bone. ***
    c. Palatine and zygomatic bone. الوجني

    30. Hard palate consists of the following:
    A. Palatal maxillray process & Ethmoid bone
    B. Palatal maxillary process & Sphenoid bone
    C. Palatal maxillary process & Palatine bone. ***
    D. Palatal maxillary process & Temporal bone
    31. Pulp chamber in lower 1st molar is mesially located:
    a. True. ***
    b. False.
    المرجع: ” Endodontics Problem solving in clinical practice 2002″

    32. The 1st cervical vertebrae is: فقرة رقبية
    a. Atlas. ***الفقهة
    b. Axis.
    فقرات الرقبة: 1-Atlas 2- Axis or Epistropheus, 3- Longus colli 4- 5- 6- 7- prominens.
    33. Cartilaginous joints in the body affect bone growth:
    a. True. ***
    b. False.

    34. Intercellular movement of PMN leukocytes is called migration: الحركة بين الخلوية للكريات البيض تدعى الهجرة
    a. True. ***
    b. False.

    35. The function of the anterior teeth is:
    a. Disarticulate the posterior teeth. انفكاك تشابك
    b. Incise food. ***
    c. Prevent attrition. منع التآكل بالاحتكاك
    d. Prevent food impaction.

    36. In geriatric Pt, Cementum on the root end will: الشيوخ
    a. Become thinned and almost nonexistent.
    b. Become thicker and irregular. ***
    c. Render apex to locater useless.
    d. Often not be seen on the radiograph.
    e. Indicate pathosis.

    27. Cementum is formed from
    a. Cementoblasts ***
    b. Fibroblasts
    c. Cementicles
    d. ..

    37. Cementum in cervical 2/3 have:
    a. Acellular intrinsic fiber. ليف لا خلوي داخلي
    b. Acellular extrinsic fiber. *** ليف لا خلوي خارجي
    c. Cellular mixed fibers. ليف خلوي مختلط
    d. Intermediate cementum-

    المرجع Periodontology PAGE 15 و Dental Decks – page 836

    Which of the following is the longest in the dental arch:
    a. Maxiliary central incisor.
    b. Maxiliary second premolar.
    c. Mandibular canine.
    d. Maxiliary canine. ***

    38. The roof of mandibular fossa consist of:
    a. Thin compact bone. *** كثيف
    b. Spongy bone. إسفنجي
    c. Cancellous bone. إسفنجي

    39. In sickle cell anemia O2 decreased in oral mucosa: فقر الدم المنجلي
    a. True. ***
    b. False

    40. The following structures open into the middle meatus: الصماخ
    a. Nasolacrimal duct.
    b. Posterior ethmoidal sinus. الجيب الغربالي الخلفي
    c. Maxillary sinus.
    d. Sphenoid sinus. الجيب الوتدي
    e. Anterior ethmoidal sinus.
    f. A, b & d.
    g. A & b.
    h. C & e. ***
    i. All of the above
    ينفتح على الصماخ السفلي: القناة الأنفية الدمعية.a
    ينفتح على الصماخ الأوسط: الجيب الغربالي الأمامي والأوسط.
    ينفتح على الصماخ العلوي: الجيب الغربالي الخلفي.B
    ينفتح على الجوف الوتدي الغربالي: الجيب الوتدي.D

    41. Ligaments associated with TMJ:
    a. Tempromandibular. فكي سفلي صدغي
    b. Sphenomandibular. فكي سفلي وتدي
    c. Stylomandibular. فكي سفلي إبري
    d. All of the above. ***
    Ref *:
    The lateral temporamandibular ligament: limits the movement of the mandible in a posterior direction.
    The sphenomandibular ligament lies on the medial side of the joint.
    The stylomandibular ligament lies behind and medial to the joint.
    الرباط الفكي السفلي الصدغي يحدد حركات الفك الخلفية وله قسمان (الخارجي المائل والداخلي الأفقي)، الوتدي يتوضع وسط المفصل والإبري من خلف المفصل إلى زاوية الفك.
    Skeletal Bone of skull develop from :
    a- Neurocranium ossification
    b- Intramembranous ossification
    c- Endochondral ossification.
    Dental decks 287
    Endochondral ossification : Short bone and long bone. Ethmoid, sphenoid and temporal bone.
    Intramembranous ossification: Flat bone.

    Question shuld be like this:
    – Skeletal face is from:
    1. Neural crest
    2. Paraxial mesoderm
    3. lateral plate (somatic layer) mesoderm.

    Neural crest give rise to : frontal b. – sphen – nasal – lacrimal – zygomatic – maxilla — incisive – mandible _Sq. Temporal.
    paraximal mesoderm (somites & somitomeres) gives rise to: occipitals – pet temporal- -paraietal bone.
    reference is Sadler’s Langman’s Medical Embryology

    42. Location to give inferior alveolar nerve block the landmarks are:
    1/ pterygomandibular raphe
    2/ cronoid notch
    3/ all of the above. ***

    43. The optic foramen canal is a part of:
    A)Frontal bone
    B)Sphenoid bone. ***
    C)Esthmoid bone
    Optic nerve coming from which bone:
    – sphenoid bone
    – zygomatic
    – palatal

    44. The body secrete antibody against antigen using which cells:
    a. T lymphocyte
    b. B lymphocyte

    26. Root most commonly pushed in max sinus
    a. Buccal of 7
    b. Palatal of 6 ***
    c. Palatal of 7
    d. Buccal of 6
    e. Distal of 6 & 7
    Dental decks 1816
    The palatal root of the maxillary first molar is most often dislodged into the maxillary sinus during an extraction procedure.

    10. Soft palate falls abruptly facilitate recording post dam مفاجا, falls gradually make recording post dam difficult
    .two statement true
    .two false ***
    .first true, second false
    .first false, second true
    المرجع: “التعويضات المتحركة الكاملة” دمشق 2006
    شراع حنك كأنه ستارة أُسدلت فجأةً بدءاً من الحافة الخلفية لصفيحة العظم الحنكي الأفقية، فتكون بهذه الصفة غير ملائمة لإحداث سدِّ خلفي مناسب

    In 6 week intra uterine life the development start. The oral epithelium is stratified squamous epithelium will thickened and give dental lamina
    a: true ***
    b: false
    Http: //www.emro.who.int/publications/emhj/0503/08.htm

    45. Tongue develope from:
    1/mandibular arch & tuberculum impar. ***
    2/1st branchial arch

    Anatomy of the Human Body – Henry Gray – page 27
    – The mandibular arch lies between the first branchial groove and the stomodeum; from it are developed the lower lip, the mandible, the muscles of mastication, and the anterior part of the tongue.
    – The ventral ends of the second and third arches unite with those of the opposite side, and form a transverse band, from which the body of the hyoid bone and the posterior part of the tongue are developed.
    Anatomy of the Human Body – Henry Gray – page 693
    During the third week there appears, immediately behind the ventral ends of the two halves of the mandibular arch, a rounded swelling named the tuberculum impar, which was described by His as undergoing enlargement to form the buccal part of the tongue. More recent researches, however, show that this part of the tongue is mainly, if not entirely, developed from a pair of lateral swellings which rise from the inner surface of the mandibular arch and meet in the middle line.

    46. Cleft lip is resulted from incomplete union of:
    1. Tow maxillary arches.
    2. Maxillary arches and nasal arch.

    47. Arrange the steps of cleft palate management:
    1. Measures to adjust speech.3
    2. Establish way for nursing and feeding.1
    3. Cosmetic closure.4
    4. Prevent collapse انهيار انهدامof two halves.2
    2 – 4 – 1 – 3.

    28. Teeth have convexity in buccal and lingual
    a. Upper premolars. ***
    b. ..

    48. 2nd maxillary premolar contact area:
    a) Middle of the middle third with buccal embrasure wider than lingual embrasure.
    B) Middle of the middle third with lingual embrasure wider than buccal embrasure.*** الفرجة الحنكية أكبر من الدهليزية
    c) Cervical to the incisal third …….x
    d) …….x

    342) distal surface for first upper premolar ,contact with the neighbor teeth :
    A)in the middle with buccal vastness wider than lingual one
    B)in the middle with lingual vastness wider than bucccaly one. ***

    590. Which of the following teeth has a contact area between the incisal (occlusal) third and middle third:
    A. 1st maxillary premolar.
    B. 1st mandibular premolar. ***
    C. 1st maxillary molar.
    D. Central mandible Incisor. In incisal
    Textbook of Dental and Oral Anatomy Physiology and Occlusion – page 110

    49. Distinguishing between right & left canines can be determined:
    a. because distal concavities are larger.
    b. with a line bisecting the facial surface the tip lies distally.
    c. others
    الإجابة على هذا السؤال هي الخيار الأول إذا كان المقصود هو الناب الدائم، والإجابة الثانية إذا كان المقصود الناب المؤقت، وإذا لم يكن هناك ذكر لكلمة مؤقت فالمقصود هو ناب دائم.
    الناب العلوي الدائم: الحافة القاطعة الوحشيةdistal أطول من الأنسيةmesial.
    الناي العلوي المؤقت: الحافة القاطعة الوحشية أقصر من الأنسية.
    Dental Decks – page 1602
    Primary canine: We can differentiate between the upper mesial & distal canine by the functional cusp tip is inclined distally if bisectioning crown the cervical line on lingual surface is inclined mesially root curved mesially

    Pulp oedema
    1- has no effect on vascular system
    2- fluid is compressed in the vessels limiting the intercellular pressure
    3- interstitial بين pressure increased due to increased vascularity *** زيادة الضغط الخلالي
    4- cause necrosis of the pulp tissues
    71) Glenoid fossa is found in:
    1/ orbital cavity
    2/nasal cavity
    3/ middle cranial fossa
    D) temporal bone. ***
    The glenoid fossa = the mandibular fossa.
    The mandibular fossa: a depression in the temporal Bone that articulates with the condyle of the Mandible and is divided into two parts by a slit.
    And
    Anatomy of the Human Body – Henry Gray – page 82

    215) endocrine and exocrine gland is :
    A) pancreas. ***
    B) pituitary gland
    C) thyroid g
    D) salivary g
    E) sweat g

    Wikipedia:
    The pancreas is a gland organ in the digestive and endocrine system of vertebrates. It is both an endocrine gland producing several important hormones, including insulin, glucagon, andsomatostatin, as well as an exocrine gland, secreting pancreatic juice containing digestiveenzymes that pass to the small intestine. These enzymes help to further breakdown thecarbohydrates, protein, and fat in the chyme.

    584. The main link between the pulp and the the periodontium is:
    A. Apical foramen. ***
    B. Dentinal tubules
    C. Accessory canals
    D. PDL

    50. The cell primary site of ATP production is:
    a. Mitochondria. *** متقدرات
    b. Lysosomes. جسيمات حالة
    c. Nucleus. النوى
    d. Nucleolus. النويات
    e. Vacuoles. فجوات

    51. The organelle most closely associated with the manufacture of proteins within the cell: العضيات
    a. Ribosome. *** ريباس
    b. Lysosome.
    c. Nucleolus.
    d. Cell wall.
    e. Cell membrane.

    52. The packingيجمع and sorting يفرزof protein is the function of:
    a. Endoplasmic reticulum. الشبكة الهيولية
    b. Golgi apparatus ***
    c. Mitochondria
    d. Nucleus

    53. The process of attraction of neutrophils to a site of Local tissue injury is called:
    a. Phagocytosis. بلعمة
    b. Diapedesis. انسلال
    c. Chemotaxis. *** انجذاب كيميائي
    d. Epistaxis. رعاف

    54. Action of Histamine:
    a. Vasodilatation. توسع الأوعية
    b. Permeability. نفوذية
    c. Chemokinesis. تحفيز كيميائي
    d. Broncho. قصبي
    ALL OF THE ABOVE خيار ناقص
    The movement of water across a selectively permeable membrane is called:
    a. Osmosis. *** التناضح
    b. Active transport. النقل الفعال
    c. Filtration. الارتشاح
    d. Diffusion. الانتشار

    Osmosis
    Osmosis is the net movement of water across a selectively permeable membrane driven by a difference in solute concentrations on the two sides of the membrane.

    55. Cell that can give more than one type:
    a. Fibroblast. مصورات الليف
    b. Odontoblast
    c. Mesenchymal cell. ***

    Leiomyosarcoma Terms Leiomyoma through Neurofibromatoses
    Mesenchymal cellِ: An undifferentiated cell found in mesenchyme and capable of differentiating into various specialized connective tissues.

    56. The process of cell engulfing particle is called: عملية ابتلاع الخلايا للجزيئات
    a. Endocytosis. التقام
    b. Exocytosis. قذف
    c. Phagocytosis. *** بلعمة
    d. Pinocytosis. احتساء

    57. The term acanthosis refers to:
    a. A decreased production of keratin.
    b. An increased production of keratin.
    c. An increased thickness of the prickle cell zone (stratum spinosum). ***
    d. None of the above.

    WordNet Search – 3.0
    Acanthosis: Thickening of the epidermis and elongation of the rete ridges due to thickening of the spinous layer.
    May be associated with enlargement of rete pegs.
    an abnormal but benign thickening of the prickle-cell layer of the skin (as in psoriasis)
    Energy absorbed by the point of fracture called
    a-ultimate strength
    b-elastic limit
    c-toughness. ***
    d-brittleness

    Toughness
    It is defined as the amount of energy per volume that a material can absorb before rupturing.
    Toughness – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
    The ability of a metal to deform plastically and to absorb energy in the process before fracture is termed toughness.
    Toughness

    344) the movement of polymorphicمتعدد الاشكال cells in the gaps of intracellular to the blood capillary Outside it called:
    A)porosity مسامية
    B)slinking تسرب
    C) diapedesis. *** انسلال (source Wikipedia)

    41. Mandibular 1st permanent molar look in morphology as:
    – primary 1st mand molar.
    – primary 2nd mand molar. ***مهم
    – primary 1st max molar.
    – primary 2nd max molar.

    ANATOMY

    Upper teeth palatal mucosa supplied by:
    a. Nasopalatine
    b. Anterior palatine
    c. Both ***
    d. Post superior alveolar nerve

    58. What supply the gingival buccal tissue of premolars, canines and incisors:
    a. Long buccal.
    b. Inferior alveolar nerve. ***
    c. Superior alveolar nerve.
    بالفك السفلي:
    تعصيب اللثة دهليزياً من الثنية حتى الضاحك الأول يكون من خلال العصب السنخي السفلي عبر فرعه الذقني.
    وتعصيب اللثة دهليزياً من الضاحك الثاني حتى الرحى الثالثة يكون من خلال العصب الخدي الطويل
    ويتم تعصيب اللب لجميع هذه الأسنان بالعصب السنخي السفلي عبر قناة الفك السفلي ثم عبر فرعه القاطعي.
    بالفك العلوي:
    تعصيب اللب واللثة دهليزياً: للقواطع بالعصب الفكي العلوي الأمامي، وللضواحك والجذر الأنسي للرحى الأولى بالعلوي الأوسط، ولبقية الأرحاء بالعلوي الخلفي.
    تعصيب المخاطية الحنكية للقواطع والضاحك الأول بالعصب الحنكي الأنفي والحنكي الأمامي ومن وحشي الناب إلى الرحى الثالثة بالعصب الحنكي الكبير
    . Lower anterior teeth labial mucosa supplied by:
    a. Mental nerve. ***
    b. Inferior dental nerve.
    C. Buccal nerve.
    العصب الذقني هو أحد فرعي العصب السنخي السفلي وفرعه الثاني هو القاطعي، وهو يعصب مخاطية القواطع، أما القاطعي فيعصب الأسنان.

    13) pterygomandibular raph.
    Insertion & origin
    muscles
    should be medial to the injection
    all of the above. ***

    27- the best definition to odontoblast:
    a- It ‘s subjacent to predentine, odontoblastic process…… ***
    b- Odontoblast cell is more in the cellular pulp than radicular
    c-

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pulp_(tooth)
    Odontoblastic layer; outermost layer which contains odontoblasts and lies next to the predentin and mature dentin

    59. Distal fissure of premolar contact oppose:
    a- Middle of the middle third & buccal fissure is wider than lingual
    b- Cervical line & lingual fissure is wider than buccal
    c- Middle of the middle third & vice versa
    d- Cervical of the middle third & vice versa

    Mandibular foramen is:
    -above occlusal plane in elderly people
    -at the occlusal plane in adult
    – below the occlusal plane in children.
    -all of the above

    Mandibular foramen is:
    -above occlusal plane in elderly people
    -at the occlusal plane in adult
    – below the occlusal plane in children. *
    -all of the above

    -The average distance between the lingual surface of the maxillary anterior teeth and the buccal surface of the mandibular anterior teeth is:
    1. 1/2mm.
    2. 1mm. ***
    3. 2mm.
    4. 3mm.

    distance between the lingual surface of the maxillary anterior teeth and the buccal surface of the mandibular anterior teeth is the OverJet
    Overjet: distance between upper and lower incisors in the horizental plane. normal is 2-4 mm.
    reference is An Inroduction to Orthodontics by Laura Mitchel
    يعني اذا السؤال فيه كلمة average حيكون الجواب ان شاء الله 3mm بحساب المعدل رياضيا
    اما اذا مافي فليستفتي الممتحن قلبه

    287. Mandible is the 1st bone calcified in skull but clavicle start first but in same embryological time: الترقوة
    a. True. ***
    b. False.

    288. Mandible formed before frontal bone:
    a. True.
    b. False. ***

    هل في تناقض؟

    ملاحظتك صحيحة دكتور
    لما أجد مرجع يرتب تشكل عظام الجمجمة ترتيباً دقيقاً حسب تشكلها بالحياة الجنينية
    جواب السؤال الثاني هو الخيار الأول بناءً على ربط السؤالين ببعض.
    الترقوة ثم الفك السفلي ثم العظم الجبهي والفك العلوي

    60. Blood supply of the palate is from:
    a. Greater palatine artery. ***
    b. Lesser palatine artery. ***
    c. Facial artery. ***
    d. Long sphenopalatine artery. *** الوتدي الحنكي
    e. Anatomising braches from all of the above EXCEPT c فروع تشريحية

    *branches of the facial artery in the neck:
    ascending palatine>>>>supply soft palate.
    *branches of the maxillary artery:
    The third part of maxillary artery gives branches which correspond to the branches of the maxillary nerve and the branches of the spheno-palatine ganglion.
    *Branches of the sheno-palatine ganglion:
    -greater palatine…………..supply hard palate.
    -lesser palatine……………supply soft palate.
    -long spheno-palatine…….anterior part of hard palate
    The blood supply of the palate is provided anteriorly through the incisor foramen and posteriorly through the great palatine foramen where the great palatine artery emerges.
    The blood supply of the palate is from ascending branches of the facial artery as well as from the branch of the maxillary artery, The palatine vessels and nerves pass through the palatine canal.
    The greater palatine artery was the main vessel to supply the hard palate and the ascending palatine artery provided the principal supply of soft palate. The branches of greater palatine artery formed abundant anastomoses with the neighbor vessels.

    #82241
     brandy689 
    Participant

    1. Actual destruction of micro-organisms in the root canal is attributed mainly to: التدمير الفعال لجراثيم القناة
    a. Proper antibiotic thereby.
    b. Effective use of medicament.
    c. Mechanical preparation and irrigation of the canal. ***
    d. None of the above.

    2. RCT contraindicated in:
    a. Vertical fracture of root. ***
    b. Diabetic Pt.
    c. Unrestored teeth.
    d. Periodontally involved teeth.

    3. Gutta percha contain mainly:
    a. Gutta percha 20%.
    b. ZINC oxide %. ***
    c. ZINC phosphate.
    تتألف الكوتا بركا من التالي: transpolyisoprene, barium sulfate, zinc oxide.
    4. Component of Gutta percha:
    a. 50% Gp & 50% ZOE
    b. 20% Gp & 70% ZOE. ***
    المرجع: Endodontics + Elsevier: Article Locator
    تتألف أقماع الكوتا بركا من التالي:
    75% (Gutta percha & barium sulfate) inorganic
    23%organic (gutta percha)
    البقية transpolyisoprene
    5. Single rooted anterior teeth has endodontic treatment is best treated by:
    a. Casted post and core. ***
    b. Performed post and composite.
    c. Performed post and amalgam.
    d. Composite post and core

    6. Post fracture decrease with
    prefabricated post
    ready made post
    casted post. ***
    metal post

    7. Teeth with RCT and you want to use post, which post is the least cause to fracture:
    1. Ready made post.
    2. Casted post.
    3. Fiber post. ***
    4. Prefabricated post.
    انواع البوست

    8. During post removal the first thing to do is:
    A) remove the G.P
    B) remove all the old restoration & undermined enamel & caries. ***
    C) insertion of post immediately
    9. For root canal treated tooth u choose to put post & amalgam this depend on
    remaining coronal structure ***
    root divergence-
    presence of wide root-
    others

    10. Post length increasing will
    .increase retention. ***
    .increase resistant
    .increase strength of restoration

    11. Post retention depends on:
    a. Post length.
    b. Post diameter.
    c. Post texture. مادة الوتد
    d. Core shape.
    e. Design of the preparation.
    f. A and b
    g. A, b and c. ***
    h. All of the above.
    i. A.

    مواصفات الوتد: طوله يعادل ثلثي القناة أو طول التاج كحد أدنى بحيث يبقى 4 ملم من حشوة القناة – أسطواني لا متناقص القطر وعرضه يترك 1 ملم من عاج الجدران ولا يزيد عن ثلث قطر الجذر – مادته خشنة نسبياً – مسنن محزز – المثبت كبرغي في جدران القناة أكثر ثباتاً وأشد خطورة فيفضل الوتد المنطبق بشكل صميمي – المقطع البيضوي.

    12. For post preparation we should leave ……mm of GP:
    a. ????
    b. 10mm
    c. 5mm. ***
    المرجع:
    Http: //www.experts123.com/q/how-much…placement.html
    Post and core – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    13. Amount of G.P should after post preparation: المتبقى من كوتا حشوة القناة
    a. 1 mm.
    b. 4-5 mm.
    c. 10 mm.
    d. None of the above.

    Oxford Handbook of Clinical Dentistry – 4th Ed. (2005) – page 154
    As a general guide the post should be at least equal to the anticipated crown height, but a minimum of 4 mm of well-condensed GP should be left. A periodontal probe is helpful to check prepared canal length.
    14. Which of the following endodontic failure may be retreated only with surgery:
    a. Missed major canal.
    b. Persistent interappointment pain. المعند
    c. Past and core. ***
    d. Short canal filling.

    15. Which of the following failure may be treated nonsurgically:
    a. Post filling that has removed. ***
    b. Severe apical perforation. انثقاب شديد
    c. Very narrow canal with a periapical lesion and the apex can not be reached.
    d. None of the above.

    16. In post and core preparation must:
    a. Extend to contrabevel.
    b. Extend to full length tooth preparation.
    c. Take same shape of natural tooth.
    d. Take shape of preparation abutment.
    e. A & d. ***
    f. A & b.
    g. D & c.
    h. B & c.
    القلب المعدني يمتد لنهاية حواف السن المحضر ويأخذ شكل الدعامة.
    17. After RCT, for insertion of post dowel:
    a. Post applied pressure.
    b. Post should be lose.
    c. Insert it without pressure but with retention. ***

    18. The best restoration for max central incisor that has received RCT through conservatively prepared access opening would be:
    a. Post-retained metal-ceramic crown.
    b. Post-retained porcelain jacket crown.
    c. Composite resin. ***
    d. None of the above.

    19. Endodontically treated 2nd maxillary premolar with moderate M & D caries is best restored by:
    a. Amalgam.
    b. 3/4 crown.
    c. Full crown. ***
    d. Onlay.

    20. In maxillary 1st molar 4th canal is found in:
    a. MB canal. ***
    b. DB canal.
    c. Palatal root.

    21. The irrigation solution is good because:
    a. Lubricate the canals.
    b. Flushes the debris.
    c. None of the above.
    d. All of the above. ***
    http://medind.nic.in/eaa/t03/i2/eaat03i2p19.pdf
    Root canal irrigants are used during biomechanical preparation of the root canal to remove the organic/inorganic debris, lubricate endodontic instruments and minimize the number of
    micro-organisms.
    22. 21 years old Pt with pathological exposure in 35. Management:
    a. Direct pulp capping.
    b. Indirect pulp capping.
    c. Root canal treatment. ***

    23. During instrumentation, sudden disappear of root canal due to:
    a. Bifurcation of main canal. ***
    b. Apical perforation.
    c. Calcification.
    حسب Dental decks 154 إذا غابت قناة الضاحك الأول السفلي في الصورة الشعاعية بدءاً من منتصف السن فإن له قناتين.
    24. In combined endo-perio problem:
    a. Start with endodontic IX. ***
    b. Start with periodontic IX.

    25. AH26 is root canal sealer consist of:
    a. ZOE.
    b. Epoxy resin. ***

    1. Buccal object role in dental treatment of maxillary teeth:
    a. MB root appear distal to P if cone is directed M to D. ***
    b. DB root appear mesial to P if cone is directed M to D.
    26. Diagnosis prior to RCT should always be based on:
    a. Good medical and dental history.
    b. Proper clinical examination.
    c. Result of pulp vitality test.
    d. A periapical radiographs.
    e. All of the above. ***

    27. Which of the following may be used to disinfect gutta percha points
    a. Boiling.
    b. Autoclave.
    c. Chemical solutions. ***
    d. Dry heat sterilization.
    Endodontics 4th edition – page 126-128
    The primary GP point selected should be sterilized with NaOCL or H2O2 or Chlorhexidine
    28. Disinfection of GP is done by:
    a. Autoclave.
    b. Dry heat.
    c. Sodium hypochlorite. ***

    29. The radiographic criteria used for evaluating the successes of endodontic therapy
    a. Reduction of the size of the periapical lesion. ***
    b. No response to percussion and palpation test.
    c. Extension of the sealer cement through lateral canals.
    d. None of the above.

    30. What is the basis قاعدةfor currentمسار endodontic therapy of a periapical lesion:
    a. Due to rich collateral circulation system, the perpical area usually heals despite the condition of the root canal. التروية الغنية تكفي
    b. If the source of periapical irritation is removed, the potential for periapical healing is good. ***
    c. Strong intracanal medications are required to sterilized the canal and periapical area to promote healing.
    d. Periapical lesions, especially apical cyst, must be treated by surgical intervention.

    31. Bacteria in endodontic pathosis mostly is:
    a. Porphyromonas endodontalis obligate anacrobe: *** لاهوائية مجبرة
    b. Streptococcus mutans.
    c. Streptococcus anaerobius.

    32. Bacteria in root canal:
    a) mixed****
    b) anaerobes obligatory
    c) aerobes only

    33. Bacteria in root canal pathosis:
    a. Mixed anaerobe and aerobe. ***
    b. Single obligate anaerobe.
    c. Aerobic.
    d. None of the above.
    Dental pulp 2002 – page 294
    When intact teeth with necrotic pulps were cultured, over 90% of the bacteria were strict anaerobes. Because bacteria isolated from root canals are usually a subgroup of the bacteria
    found in the sulcus or periodontal pockets, it is believed that the sulcus is the source of bacteria in root canal infections.
    34. Irrigation solution for RCT cause protein coagulation is:
    1- Sodium hypochlorite.
    2- Iodine potassium.
    3- Formocresol. ***
    4- None of the above.
    35. Emergency endodontic should not be started before:
    a. Establishing the pain.
    b. Check restorability of the tooth.
    c. Establishing the diagnosis. ***

    The most common cause of endodontic pathosis is bacteria:
    d. True. ***
    e. False.
    الأسباب الأخرى هي الرض – التآكل – التسرب الحفافي – مشاكل الحشوات والإلصاق.

    36. Palatal canal in upper molars is curved:
    a. Buccally. ***
    b. Palatally.
    c. Distally.

    37. To obturate the canal the most important step is:
    a. Cleaning and shaping of the canal. ***
    b. Irrigation of the canal.

    38. The most common endodontic cyst is:
    a. Radicular cyst. ***
    b. Keratocyst.
    c. Acute apical periodontitis.

    39. The most important in RCT is seal: الأهم للختم
    a. Apical 1/3. ***
    b. Middle 1/3.
    c. Cervical 1/3.

    40. Broken instrument during RCT, best prognosis if broken at: أفضل إنذار
    a. Apical 1/3. ***
    b. Middle 2/3.
    c. Cervical 3/3.

    41. Lateral canal is detected by:
    a. Radiograph. ***
    b. Tactile sensation. إحساس اللمس
    c. By clinical examination.

    42. Among the reasons that molar teeth are more difficult to treat endodontically than anterior teeth:
    a. Molar have more complex canal configuration.
    b. Molar tend to have greater canal curvature.
    c. A and b. ***
    d. None of the above.

    43. The basic difference between K files and reamers is:
    a. The number of spirals or flutes per unit length.
    b. The geometric هندسي cross section. ***
    c. The depth of flutes.
    d. The direction of the spirals.

    44. The root canal treated teeth has the best prognosis when the root canal is instrumented and obturated:
    a. To the radiograph apex.
    b. 1 mm beyond the radiograph apex. ما بعد
    c. 1-2 mm short of the radiograph apex. ***
    d. 3-4 mm short of the radiograph apex.
    المرجع: ” Clinical Endodontics TRONSTAD”
    45. Teeth that are discolored as a result of internal resorption of the pulp may turn:
    a. Yellow.
    b. Dark brown.
    c. Pink. ***
    d. Green.
    Dental Decks – page 244

    46. Sensitivity to palpation and percussion indicates: الجس والقرع
    a. Reversible pulpitis.
    b. Irreversible pulpitis.
    c. Neurotic pulp.
    d. Hyperplastic pulpitis.
    e. Inflammation of the periradicular tissues. ***

    47. Trauma lead to fracture in the root between middle cervical and apical third:
    a) poor prognosis
    b) good prognosis ***

    في كسور الجذر أسوأ إنذار هو لكسر يحصل في الثلث المتوسط ويتبعه غالباً تموت باللب، أما كسر الثلث الذروي فيترك ليشفى غالباً، وفي كسر الثلث التاجي يزال الجزء التاجي ويتم تبزيغ التاج تقويمياً أو كشفه جراحياً.

    48. Endomethasone is a root canal sealer that:
    a. Dissolve in fluid so it weaken the root canal filling.
    b. Very toxic contain formaldehyde.
    c. Contain corticosteroids.
    d. All the above. ***

    49. Cause that master G.P not reach working length although it is the same size of last file:
    a. Dentin debris. برادة عاجية
    b. Ledge formation. درجة
    c. A & b. ***
    d. None of the above

    Endodontics Problem solving in clinical practice 2002 – page 135
    Master Cone Will Not Fit to Length:
    • Dentine chips packed into the apical extent of the root canal preparation will lead to a decrease in working length, and consequently the master cone will appear to be short. This can be avoided by using copious amounts of irrigant during preparation.
    • A ledge in the root canal wall can prevent correct placement of the cone. If the cone hits an obstruction during placement then the end may appear crinkled. It may be possible to remove or smooth a ledge by refining the preparation with a greater taper instrument.
    • If the canal is insufficiently tapered, the master cone may not fit correctly because it is binding against the canal walls coronally or in the mid-third. The completed root canal preparation should follow a gradual taper along its entire length. Further preparation may be required with Gates-Glidden burs, orifice shapers or a greater taper instrument.

    50. Small access opening in upper centeral incisor lead to:
    a. Complete removal of the pulp.
    b. Incomplete removal of the pulp. ***
    c. Conservative restoration.

    51. All are irrigation for canals EXCEPT:
    a. Saline.
    b. Hydrogen beroxide.
    c. Naocl
    d. RC prep. ***
    مادة خالبة مثل EDTA

    52. Properties of ideal endo obturation material are all EXCEPT:
    a. Biocompatible.
    b. Radiolucent. ***

    53. Very important part in endo treatment:
    a. Complete debridement of the canal

    54. Perio endo lesion the primary treatment:
    a. Endo treatment. ***
    b. Deep scaling and root planning.
    Dental decks – page 216

    14. Tooth requires RCT with bone resorption. Terminate RCT at:
    a. Radiographic apex
    b. 0.5-1 mm short of radiographic apex. الأصح
    c. 0.5-1 mm beyond radiographic apex
    d. …
    “ENDODONTICS Fifth Edition – page 515”
    Weine’s recommendations for determining working length based on radiographic evidence of root/bone resorption.
    A, If no root or bone resorption is evident, preparation should terminate 1.0 mm from the apical foramen.
    B, If bone resorption is apparent but there is no root resorption, shorten the length by 1.5 mm
    . C, If both root and bone resorption are apparent, shorten the length by 2.0 mm.
    Color atlas of endodontics – page 54
    Some researchers suggest calculating the working length 1 mm short of the radiographic apex with normal apical anatomy, 1.5 mm short with bone but no root resorption, and 2 mm short with bone and root resorption.
    79. File #40 means:
    a. 0.40 is the diameter at d1 ***
    b. 0.40 is from d1 to d16

    To locate the canal orifice use
    a-barite probe
    b-endo spreader
    c-endo file with curved tip
    d-round bur

    Color atlas of endodontics – page 14
    – Conventional stainless steel files can be precurved and “hooked” into canals.
    Pathway of the pulp 9ed 1st part – page 197-215-227
    – examining the pulp chamber floor with a sharp explorer. (maxillary molar)
    – An oval orifice must be explored with apically curved small instruments. The clinician should place the file tip in the orifice with the tip to buccal when trying to locate the buccal canal. A curved file tip is placed toward the palate to explore for the palatal canal.

    – Micro-Openers (Dentsply Maillefer, Tulsa, OK) are excellent instruments for locating canal orifices when a dental dam has not been placed.

    – An endodontic explorer is used to search for canal orifices.

    5.Contraindication for endo treatment EXCEPT:
    -non strategic tooth
    -non restorable teeth
    -vertical fracture teeth
    -tooth with large periapical lesion ***
    55. Irrigant that kills e-foecalis
    1-naoh
    2-mtad. ***
    2-saline
    3-chlorohexidine
    Pathway to the pulp
    New irrigants are being developed in an attempt to address some of the shortcomings of past and current materials. MTAD is a mixture of a tetracycline isomer (i.e., doxycycline), an acid, and a detergent. In an in vitro study, MTAD was found to be an effective solution for killing E. Faecalis.

    14-weeping canal we use
    1-g.p
    2-caoh ***
    3-….
    4-…
    Clinical Endodontics textbook TRONSTAD – page 224
    This situation is often referred to as a “weeping canal” and is annoying in that the apical part of the canal cannot be dried properly. The right therapy is a discontinuation of the use of the tissue-irritating antiseptics followed by 2–3 weeks of calcium hydroxide in the root canal. The chemically-induced exudation will then have stopped and the root canal can be dried and obturated.

    7-Tug back refers to:
    1. Retention of GP inside the canal. ***
    2. Fluibilty of GP.

    15-dental student using thermoplastized g.p. What is the main problem he may face;
    1-extrusion of g.p. From the canal ***
    2-inability to fill the proper length
    3- failure to use maser cone at proper length
    4- ledge
    Oxford Handbook of Clinical Dentistry – 4th Ed. (2005)- page 177
    It is difficult to control the apical extent of the root filling and in addition some contraction of the GP occurs on cooling.
    Useful for irregular canal defects
    عند حقن الكوتا الملينة بالحرارة قد تتجاوز السن وتخرج إلى المنطقة الذروية.

    17-during endo pt is complaining of pain with percussion what u suspect?
    1-apical periodontitis
    2-secondery apical periodontitis.
    3-over instrumentation. ***
    4-over medication
    Oxford Handbook of Clinical Dentistry – 4th Ed. (2005) – page 178
    Pain following instrumentation: This is usually due to instruments or irrigants, or to debris being forced into the apical tissues.
    “Pathway of the pulp 9ed 1st part – page 217”
    Postoperative discomfort generally is greater when this area (apical constriction) is violated by instruments or filling materials, and the healing process may be compromised.

    سؤال آخرمشابه فيه خياران صحيحان:

    15- During doing Rct, pt complains from pain during percussion due to:
    A- Apical infection.
    B- Impact debris fragment
    c- Over instrumentation

    “Pathway of the pulp 9ed 1st part – page 406”
    Shaping to the radiographic apex is likely to produce overinstrumentation past the apical foramen, with possible clinical sequelae of postoperative pain and inoculation of microorganisms into periapical spaces.
    الجواب الأنسب وهو ما يحدث في الحياة العملية هو Over instrumentation.

    28. Over extended GP should remove using:
    – ultrasonic vibrating.
    – dissolving agent. ***
    – rotary or round bur
    – surgery

    56. tracing of GP used for:
    1/source of periapical pathosis ***
    2/acute periapical periodontitis
    3/ periodental abscess
    4/ none
    اقتفاء مسار قمع الكوتا يهدف إلى معرفة مصدر الآفة حول السنية (عن طريق الناسور)

    57. What is the disadvantages of Mcspadden technique in obturation االتكثيف الحراري الميكانيكي الجانبي – حركة فتل للخارج بمبرد خاص
    requires much practice to perfect. ***
    Oxford Handbook of Clinical Dentistry – 4th Ed. (2005) – page 177
    And:
    Disadv’s of mcspadden Tech:
    1. Use of speed higher than recommended>> poor seal.
    2. Extrusion of the filling material.
    3. Fracture of thermocompactor.
    4. Gouging of the canal wall.
    5. Inability to use the technique in curved canals.
    6. Heat generation may lead to PDL damage, resorption and ankylosis..
    7. Voids in final filling

    And:
    If the file is turning in reverse, it can screw itself into the canal and periapical tissues
    Endodontic Obturation

    What are the disadvantages of mcspadden technique in obturation:
    a) Increase time.
    B) Increase steps.
    C) Difficult in curved canals. ***
    D) All the above.

    493) thermo mech. Tech of obturation is:
    A) thermafil
    B) obtura
    C) ultrafil
    D) mcspadden. *** (source : Endodontic obturation materials)

    58. all these are contraindicated to RCT EXCEPT:
    a- Non restorable tooth
    b- Vertical root fracture
    c- Tooth with insufficient tooth support
    d- Pt who has diabetes or hypertension
    59.
    Perforation during endo space preparation what is the most surface of distal root of lower molar will have tendency of perforation:
    1/ M SURFACE. ***
    2/ Distal surface.
    3/ Buccal surface.
    4/ Lingual surface.
    لو كانت صيغة السؤال تخص الحجرة اللبية فالسطح الأكثر تعرضاً للانثقاب هو اللساني Dental decks 144
    Mandibular molare trapezoid out line 40% 4 canal
    Maxillary molar triangle out line
    دنتل ديكس 146 مهم جداااااااااا
    Max 12 pain forehad area
    Max3 4 pain nasolabial area
    max 5 pain tempregon
    Man 12345 pain mental
    man 678 pain ear

    60. Crown and root perforation:
    1/ respond to MTA
    2/ use matrix with hydroxyapatite and seal with G I
    3/1&2. ***
    4/root canal filling

    61. Follow up of RCT after 3 years , RC failed best treatment is to:
    a) Extraction of the tooth
    b) Redo the RCT . ***
    c) Apicectomy

    هذه الأسئلة وردت لزميل حصل على درجة كاملة في المداوة اللبية Endodontics فالحل صحيح حتماً.
    62. mechanochemical prep’n during RCT main aim: الهدف الرئيسي
    1) widening of the apex
    2) master cone reaches the radiographic apex
    3) proper debridement of the apical part of the canal******

    63. At which temperature that gutta percha reach the alpha temp:
    a- 42-48 c ******
    b- 50-60
    c- 70-80
    d- 100c

    1. In a curved root u bent a file by.
    A. Put gauze on the file & bend it by hand *** شاش
    b. Bend the file by pliers ملقط
    c by bare finger إصبع مجرد
    d. By twist حبل
    وحسب أوكسفورد يتم الثني بقبضة المرآة.

    64. How do you know if there are 2 canals in the same root:
    a) Radiographically with 2 files inside the root. ***
    b) The orifices are close to each other.
    C) ……x

    65. The best way to remove silver point
    a) Steiglitz pliers. ***
    c) Ultrasonic tips
    d) H files
    e) Hatchet

    A grasping tool such as the Stieglitz pliers (Henry Schein) can generally get a strong purchase on the coronal end of a silver point and then, utilizing the concept of fulcrum mechanics, elevate the silver point out of the canal.
    Indirect ultrasonics is another important method to remove silver points. It is not wise to place any ultrasonic instrument directly on the silver point because it will rapidly erode away this soft material.
    And
    Endodontics Problem solving in clinical practice 2002 – page 142
    Cement can be removed carefully from around the point using a Piezon ultrasonic unit and CT4 tip or sealer tip. Great care must be taken not to sever the point and damage the coronal end. The point is withdrawn using Stieglitz forceps or small-ended artery forceps.

    3.The tip of size 20 endo file is:
    – 0.02 m.m
    – 0.2 m.m***
    28) continuous condensation technique in gp filling is:
    obtura I
    obtura II
    ultrafill
    System B. ***
    جميع الخيارات الثلاثة الأولى من تقنيات حقن الكوتا الملينة بالحرارة.
    45) outline of 2nd molar Access Opening LOWER
    Triangular with the base mesially***
    397) The outline form of upper maxillary molar access opening is Triangular, The base of this triangle is directed toward :
    A) Buccal. ***
    B) Palatal
    C) Mesial
    D) Distal

    Irrigation solution for RCT ,when there is infection and draining from the canal is
    a) Sodium hypochlorite
    b) Iodine potassium
    c) sodium hypochlorite and iodine potassium. ***
    “Pocket Atlas of Endodontics – page 154”
    Therefore, like citric-acid rinsing, EDTA solution is recommended before the placement of calcium hydroxide. At a 15% concentration, citric acid has been shown to be very effective against anaerobic bacteria.
    Solvidont, a bisdequalium acetate, exhibits good antibacterial properties, but also an unfavorable relationship between cytotoxicity and antibacterial efficiency.
    Physiologic saline (nacl) is by far the most tissue-friendly rinsing solution, but its antibacterial effect is quite low.
    Iodine and also potassium iodine are good antiseptics with equally good tissue biocompatibility.
    “Betadine” is the commercially available product.
    With paraformaldehyde or phenol-containing solutions, on the other hand, the tissue toxicityis higher than the antibacterial efficacy.

    40 – Sealer is used in RCT to:
    1- Fill in voids. ***
    2- Increase strength of RC filling.
    3- Disinfect the canal.

    أثناء اللبية اخترقنا مفترق الجذور….المعالجة:
    Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA). ***
    ca oh
    formocresol

    Pt come with siuns u make gp tracing & take radiograph the gp appear in lateral surface of the root
    periodontal abscess
    periodontitis
    lateral acessory canal. ***

    Tech of endo fill where we use continuous condensation
    vertical condensation
    Principles and Practice of Endodontics WALTON – page 273
    “Continuous wave of condensation” in the vertical condensation paragraph
    401) what is the concept of Pro-taper system :
    A) Step down tech.
    B) Step back tech.
    C) Crown down tech.. ***
    594. Naocl is used in RCT:
    A. Oxidative effect.
    B. Ordinary irrigant solution.
    C. Better used dilutedمخفف. ***
    D. Better result when used combined with alcohol.

    Oxford Handbook of Clinical Dentistry, 4th Edition – page 172
    Dilute sodium hypochlorite is generally considered to be the best irrigant as it is bacteriocidal and dissolves organic debris.

    11 – The narrowest canal found in a three root maxillary first molar is the:
    1. Mesio-buccal canal.
    2. Disto-buccal canal.
    3. Palatal canal.
    4. Disto-palatal canal.
    5. Mesio-palatal canal. ***القناة الرابعة

    12 – The following canals may be found in an upper molar:
    1. Mesio-buccal.
    2. Disto-buccal.
    3. Mesio-palatal.
    4. Disto-lingual.
    5. Palatal.
    a) 1+2+4.
    b) 1+2+4+5.
    c) 2+3+4+5.
    d) 1+2+3+5. ***

    adding of surfactant مزحلقة to irrigation solution during RCT to increase wettability of canal walls by:
    a-lowering surface tension***
    b-increasing surface tension
    c-passing through dentinal tubules
    Surfactant – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
    EDTA Plus with Surfactant Endodontic Intracanal Lubricant
    EDTA Plus with Surfactant Endodontic Intracanal Lubricant
    Essential Dental Systems, Inc.

    EDTA Plus with Surfactant is formulated to remove the smear layer, thus allowing penetration into the dentin tubules. The surfactant–17% ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid sodium salt–reduces surface tension thereby improving penetration into the canal. Its light peach color ensures easy recognition during the irrigation procedure. The lubricant is supplied in a convenient dropper bottle for ease of use.
    Added 01/05/2009

    66. patency filling
    a-push the file apically to remove any block at the apex ***
    b-rotate the file circumferentially at the walls to remove any block of lateral canals.
    c-rotary files circumferentially at the walls to remove any block of lateral canals.
    D-file with bleaching agent.

    51. The access opening in lower incisor:
    a. Round.
    b. Oval.*****
    c. Triangular.

    While u were preparing a canal u did a ledge, then u used EDTA with the file, this may lead to
    perforation of the strip

    67. You make ledge in the canal. you want to correct this. what is the most complication occur in this step:
    Creation false canal
    apical zip
    stripping
    perforation

    68. Removing of dentine in dangerous zone to cementum is:
    1/ perforation. *** تجاوز الذروة
    2/ledge. درجة
    3/stripping. انثقاب جانبي
    4/zipping. نقل الذروة
    مهمممممممممم

    child patient with obliteration in the centeral permenant incisor. What will you do:
    RCT
    pulpotomy
    pulpectomy
    careful monitoring******يراقب بحذر

    15.Bacteria release from bacteria in endo canal…..:
    -from dentin bacteriods ??
    – ……..

    The fundamental rule in the endodontic emergencies is :
    control pain by inflammatory non steroid.
    diagnosis is certain. ***

    10 – To get file size 24, the following length should be cut from file size 20:
    1. 1mm.
    2. 2mm. ***
    3. 3mm.
    4. 4mm.

    69. Best Root Canal Material primary central incisor:
    a-iodoform.
    b-Guttapercha
    c-Formacresol.

    IODOFORM (KRI) PASTE
    Resorbs rapidly & has no undesirable effects on succedaneous teeth.
    Material extruded into periapical tissue is rapidly replaced by normal tissue.
    Has superior antimicrobial action.
    Does not set into hard mass & can be removed if re-treatment is required.

    عند اجراء معالجة افة ذروية معالجة لبية تقليدية متى نبدأ بصنع التعويض
    1-مباشرة بعد انتهاء المعالجةاللبية والالام التاية الحادة تبقى لعدة ايام او اسابيع بعد المعالجة
    2-*****نصنع تعويض مؤقت لتعويض الوظيفة والشكل وننتظر شفاء الافة شعاعيا لمدة 4-8 اشهر
    3نفس السابق وننتظر من 12-24 شهر
    4كل ما سيق خطأ

    نفس السؤال السابق لكن مع جراحة حول ذروية متى نصنع التعويض النهائي
    1-م -2شهر
    2من-2-3شهر
    3من-3-4شهر
    4**** من-6-8شهر احتمال
    70.
    the decision to retreat substandard endodontics should be based on
    1-radiographic evaluation of the endodontic treatment quality *
    2———————————–periapical pathology
    3-patient symptoms
    4-physical exploration of the root canal type and quality seal
    5-restorative treatment plan

    How many canals can be present in mandibular second molars:
    a. 1, 2, 3 or 4.
    b. 2, 3 or 4*****
    c. 3 or 4. ***
    d. 3.

    71. Primary teeth had trauma, tooth change in color become white yellowish ,what should you tell the parents:
    a. Pulp is dead
    b. Inflammation of pulp.
    c. Calcification of dentin.
    d. B& c. ***
    المرجع: “Principles and Practice of Endodontics WALTON” ص36 – ص407
    يحدث اصفرار السن بحصول رض يليه تراكم العاج الثانوي ونشاط التهابي ضمن اللب دون تموت.

    72. Treatment of internal resorption involves:
    a. Complete extirpation of the pulp to arrest the resorption process. ***
    b. Enlarging the canal apical to the resorbed area for better access.
    c. Utilizing a silver cone and sealer to fill the irregularities in the resorbed area.
    d. Filling the canal and defect with amalgam.
    e. Sealing sodium hypochlorite in the canal to remove the inflammatory tissue necrotic in the area of the resorption.

    Clinical Endodontics textbook TRONSTAD – page 150
    Irrigation with copious amounts of 5 % sodium hypochlorite may have some effect, but the treatment of choice is to pack the canal and the resorption lacuna with calcium hydroxide paste. By the next visit, the calcium hydroxide will have necrotized any remaining tissue in the lacuna, and the necrotic remnants are readily removed by irrigation with sodium hypochlorite.

    Female pt come with endo treated upper central with m, d caries & have incisal abrasion. Porcelain veneer is planned with modification to cover incisal edge. veneer should end:
    fourth lingualy 0.5 mm before centric occlusal. ***
    fourth 1.5 before centric occlusion
    fifth 1.5 before centric occlusion

    حل عبيدة
    السوال الاول : متى نترك فوهة القناة مفتوحة
    1-الحالة مترافقة مع تورم حول سني رخو
    2-الحالة مترافقة مع تورم قاسي
    3-عندما تكون خظة المعالجة قلع السن
    4-عندما تكون حالة المريض تتطور نحو التهاب خلوي فكي حاد

    after endo pt is complaining of pain with percussion what u suspect?
    -apical periodontitis
    -secondery apical periodontitis.***
    – abcess
    -reversable pulpitis

    to located the canal orfice
    1_briate probe
    2_endo spreader
    3_endo fil with curved tip
    4_roun bur
    اعتقد الاجابة رقم 2…. بس محتاج تاكيد… حد عندة تاكيد لدا السؤال؟؟؟؟

    حسب الدراسة في الجامعة كنا نستعمل probe حادة la pointe في المرحلة الاولى
    وبعدين نستعمل endo fil
    يا اخواني على حسب ما اعرف
    The endodotic explorer is use to detect the openings of the canals. If difficulty to located an ultrasonic probe is useful. In extremely difficult case we can use a round bur in a low speed handpiece.

    most easy of endo re treatment
    1 over obturation
    2 silver point
    3 weeping canal
    4 short obturation
    لو حد عندة تاكيد للسؤال دا يا جماعة….وشكرا ليكي دكتورة ساينس علي الرد
    حسب معلوماتي السابقة من المنتدى
    الاجابة الصحيحة هي 4
    short obturation
    اضن اسهل لانو نصف القناة فارغ بس silver poin تكون اصعب
    و الله اعلم

    يا اخواني الافاضل.. انا بعتقد ان الاسهل في اعادة علاج العصب هو ال silver point عشان لما بنشلها بتكون قطعة واحدة … غير ال GP بتحتاج اذابة الاول وشغلات .. مش عارفة حاولت ادور علي الاجابة لم اتوصل لشئ نهائي… دكتور ساينس او دكتور علاء اوي اي حد عندة رائ تاني؟؟

    السلام عليكم …. اخيرا وجدت ان silver point صعبة في اعادة علاج العصب عشان لما احطها بتكون بقوة ولما اجي اشيلها بتكون بصعوبة جداا ودي واحدة من عيوبها… يعني بعتقد ان ال short obturation الاسهل في اعادة العلاج … واللة اعلم … المرجع من كتاب principal and partical of endo

    هادي بعض المعلومات
    method used to remove an
    existing root filling will depend on the type of the
    material.

    Gutta-percha
    Gutta-percha is relatively simple to remove
    (Fig. I). A gap may be made between a poorly
    condensed filling and the root canal wall with an
    explorer. A Hedstroem file (size 20 or above) is
    then screwed into the space. A second and, if
    possible, a third files are inserted to engage the
    mass of the gutta-percha.. ….
    Metal points
    The method of removing silver or titanium
    points is dictated by their position within the root
    canal. Single point root fillings are easy to remove
    if they extend into the pulp chamber with the
    coronal end long enough to be grasped by either
    the Steglitz forceps, narrow-beaked artery forceps,
    or a pair of pliers with fine beaks. If the metal
    point lies in the root canal below the pulp chamber
    but in the straight part of the canal, the Masserann
    fragment remover kit may be used

    في سؤال عن endo.. لو حصل كسر بين apical thired and middle thired in root … العلاج اعمل root canal for both….لو كان العصب ميت …
    ******************
    Root Fractures
    The noncommunicating fracture occurs in the apical or middle third of the root. Perform a vitality test, check for color change in the crown, and record the degree of mobility of each traumatized tooth. If the pulp is vital, then immobilize the tooth by splinting it to the adjacent teeth……………….
    …….If the fracture of any part of the root is coronal to the periodontal attachment,The fractured part should be removed during the emergency visit, and endodontic treatment should be done in one visit. Once the emergency has been taken care of, plans must be made for restoring the tooth.

    الزملاء الأعزاء
    هذه الأسئلة مذكورة في الصفحة 99 من المنتدى، وقد وردت في امتحان د.باسم، وكان قد حصل على درجة كاملة في المداوة اللبية Endodontics فالإجابات التالية صحيحة حتماً.

    which of the following is the least effective to kill HIV:
    a.naocl
    b.ultraviolet chamber.
    c.autoclave
    d.chimoclave

    المشاركة الأصلية كتبت بواسطة د.أحمد Irrigation solution for RCT cause protein coagulation is:
    1- Sodium hypochlorite .
    2- Iodine potassium.
    3- Formocresol. ***
    4- None of the above.
    الي يعمل ترسيب للsurface protein ماء الاكسجين H2O2 يعني الاجابة رقم 4

    أنا معك في أن الفورموكريزول بالتأكيد ليس سائل إرواء Irrigation وهو يستخدم لتخثير البروتين وتثبيت اللب للأسنان المؤقتة، ولكن إذا افترضنا صحة صيغة السؤال كما كتبه الزملاء، فهل هناك مرجع على أن تخثير البروتين يتم باستخدام ماء الاكسجين H2O2 ؟؟

    حل اسئلة الدكتور فهد وياشباب لو في اسئلة تكتب باللغة الانجليزية علشان الامتحان مش بالعربي
    اتمني ان يكون اجاباتي صحيحة أن شاء الله ولاكن الي * يعني فيه شك اما ** بامر الله صح والنقاش مفتوح طبعآ
    [LEFT]

    318. Barbed broach in endodontic is used for pulp examination in straight canals: الإبر الشائكة لسبر الأقنية المستقيمة نسبياً
    a. True. ***
    b. False.

    الابر الشائكه فقط للاستئصال فقط حسب علمي

    حسب أكسفورد ص 171
    Broaches These are either smooth for exploring or barbed for pulp extirpation.
    الإبر الملساء smooth هي التي تستخدم لاستكشاف القناة وليس الإبر الشائكة Broaches

    المشكلة هي أن جميع النوت التي توفرت عندي كانت تؤكد الإجابة الأولى.
    أما الأصح فهي الثانية.

    11 – The narrowest canal found in a three root maxillary first molar is the:
    1. Mesio-buccal canal.
    2. Disto-buccal canal.
    3. Palatal canal.
    4. Disto-palatal canal.
    5. Mesio-palatal canal. ***
    هو عم يقول 3 جذور ليش الجواب هوMesio-palatal canalمو لازم يكون 1. Mesio-buccal canala, شو رايكم؟؟انااتخربطت بهذا السؤال

    #82242
     brandy689 
    Participant

    1. Orthognathic ridge relationship (class II) presents several problems which should be taken into consideration when constructing complete denture prosthesis. These include all EXCEPT:
    a. Require minimum interocclusal distance. ***
    b. Have a great range of jaw movement.
    c. Require careful occlusion, usually cuspless teeth are indicated. عديمة الحدبات

    Complete Denture 17th Ed – page 16
    RESIDUAL RIDGE RELATIONSHIP: Class II or retrognathic is usually difficult as the patient looks toothy, often holds the mandible forward to improve appearance with subsequent TMJ problems, usually have a great range of jaw movements in function, require careful occlusion, and usually needs a large interocclusal distance. Class Ill or prognathic is usually easier if not extreme. The patient usually functions on a hinge (little or no protrusive component) and requires a minimum of interocclusal distance. In any case, do not set the teeth for a retrognathic or prognathic patient in a normal relationship, unless there is only a moderate deviation from Class I.

    2. Planning centric occlusion for complete denture, it is advisable to have:
    a. 1-2 mm of vertical and horizontal overlap of upper and lower anterior teeth with no contact. *** تغطية
    b. Definite tooth contact of upper and lower anterior teeth in order to facilitate the use of anterior teeth for incision. تماس صميمي

    3. The posterior extension of max complete denture can be detected by the followings EXCEPT:
    a. Hamular notch. الثلمة الجناحية الفكية
    b. Fovea palatine. *** النقرتان الحنكيتان
    c. Vibrating line.
    “التعويضات المتحركة الكاملة”
    “تتوضع الثلمة الجناحية الفكية بين الحدبة الفكية والشص الجناحي للصفيحة الأنسية للعظم الوتدي، وهي نقطة علام هامة لإنهاء حواف الجهاز عندها، وتعتبر أكثر مناطق التثبيت أهمية في الجهاز العلوي” “أغلبية العينات كانت لها نقرات تقع على أو خلف خط الاهتزاز الأمامي (على جانبي الخط الأوسط). لذلك فإن موقع النقرات لا يمثل الملتقى بين الحنكين الرخو والصلب . ولا يجب استعمال النقرات الحنكية كدليل على توضع السد الخلفي . إن الطبيب الذي يلاحظ هذه النقرات ويستخدم هذه المعالم التشريحية على أساس أنها حد خلفي لقاعدة الجهاز السني يمكن أن يحرم مريضه من عدة مليمترات بل حتى سنتيمتر وأكثر من مدى تغطية النسيج وذلك اعتماداً على الشكل الحنكي . وهذا بدوره سيكون له تأثير سلبي على ثبات قاعدة الجهاز السني الكامل للفك العلوي”

    4. The distal palatal termination of the maxillary complete denture base is dictated by the:
    a. Tuberosity. الحدبة الفكية
    b. Fovea palatine. نقرة الحنك
    c. Maxillary tori.
    d. Vibrating line. ***
    e. Posterior palatal seal. السد الخلفي

    heartwell 5th ed – page 224
    Vibrating line is determined the posterior extension of the posterior palatal seal
    5. All are participating in the determination of the posterior extension of the maxillary denture (posterior palatal extension) EXCEPT:
    vibrating line
    hamular notch
    fovae palatine
    retromolar (pads) areas. ***
    يساعد على تحديد منطقة السد الخلفي كل من خط الاهتزاز والثلمة الجناحية الفكية ونقرتا الحنك
    6. Vibrating line:
    a. Between hard & soft palate.
    b. Between mobile and non mobile soft tissue. ***

    7. Best instrument to locate vibrating line with it is
    T burnisher. مصقلة
    أو نهاية قبضة المرآة
    8. We can use to palatal posterior seal:
    1. Le jao carver.
    2. Kingsley scraper. ***

    9. oral surgeon put his finger on the nose of the patient and the patient asked to blow.This done to check:
    a. anterior extention of posterior palatal seal. ***
    b. lateral extension of posterior palatal seal
    c. posterior extension of posterior palatal seal.
    d. glandular opening
    Dental Decks – page 440
    Land marks for posterior palatal seal:
    The posterior outline: is formed by the “Ah” line or vibrating line and passes through the two pterygomaxillary (hamular) notchs and is close to the fovea palatine.
    The anterior outline: is formed by the “blow” line and is located at the distal extent of the hard palate.
    10. To recheck centric relation in complete denture:
    a. Ask PT to swallow and close.
    b. Ask PT to place tip of tongue in posterior area and close. ***
    c. To wet his lip and tongue.
    d. All of the above.

    11. Pt. Presented after insertion of complete denture complaining of dysphagia صعوبة في البلع and ulcers what is the cause of dysphagia?
    -over extended. ***
    -over post dammed.
    -under extended
    -under post dammed
    المرجع: التعويضات المتحركة الكاملة
    الامتداد الزائد للحواف الخلفية للجهاز الفكي العلوي:
    في محاولة طبيب الأسنان الممارس لزيادة الخواص التثبيتية للجهاز فإنه قد يتجاوز فيزيولوجية الجهاز العضلي للحنك الرخو ويضع الحدود الخلفية للجهاز السني بعيداً جداً نحو الخلف، عندما يحصل ذلك فإن الجزء النشط من الحنك الرخو ينثني مقابل قاعدة الجهاز السني الصلبة وغير اللينة.
    والشكوى التي تتكرر أكثر عند المرضى هو أن البلع يكون صعباً ومؤلماً، وفي تلك الحالة يمكن مشاهدة مناطق صغيرة متقرحة في الحنك الرخو، يتم تعليم الآفة بقلم غير قابل للمحي وينقل إلى قاعدة الجهاز السني حيث تتم إزالة مكان الامتداد الزائد عن طريق السحل وبعد ذلك إعادة صقله بحذر.
    إذا كانت الشاخصات الكلابية مغطاة من قبل قاعدة الجهاز السني فإن المريض سوف يعاني من ألم حاد وخاصة أثناء الوظيفة, يجب أن لا تغطى قاعدة الجهاز الشاخصات الكلابية.

    12. Pt with denture has swallowing problem and sore throat. The problem is: حلق ملتهب
    a. Posterior over extension at distal palatal end. ***
    b. Over extension of lingual.
    c. Over extension of hamular notch. الثلمة الشصية

    13. After insertion of complete denture, Pt came complaining from pain in TMJ and tenderness of muscle with difficulty in swallowing, this could be due to:
    a. High vertical dimension. ***
    b. Low vertical dimension.
    c. Thick denture base.
    d. Over extended denture base.

    Dental Decks – page 398
    مهمممممممممم
    14. Nausea is a complaint that a new denture wearer might encounter. It may result from: الغثيان
    a. Thick posterior border. حافة خلفية سميكة
    b. Denture under extended. امتداد خلفي ناقص
    c. Denture slightly over extended. امتداد زائد قليلاً للخلف
    d. A & b are correct. ***

    Complete Prosthodontics (problems,diagnosis&managment) – page 78
    Gagging (nausea): loose denture – thick distal termination of upper denture – lingual placement of upper denture – occlusal plane low.
    Complete Denture 17th Ed – page 128
    3. Gagging:
    a. Psychogenic -starts in mind, very difficult to treat
    b. Stomatogenic -starts in body (usually dentures), treatable
    c. Dental causes:
    1. Lack of retention
    2. Poor occlusion
    3. Insufficient or excessive palatal seal. أي سد خلفي ناقص أو مفرط بالزيادة
    4. Crowded tongue due to a thick palate or poor tooth placement
    5. Excessive salivation
    6. Excessive vertical dimension (often seen in new dentures)
    And
    http://web.wits.ac.za/NR/rdonlyres/F…esManualV6.pdf
    Denture over-extension onto the soft palate may stimulate a gag reflex directly by continuous contact or indirectly by intermittent contact brought about by the activity of the soft palate or posterior third of the tongue.
    An under-extended denture (or an unstable denture from occlusal interferences) will lack a posterior seal, will dislodge intermittently, irritate the posterior third of the tongue and thus cause nausea.
    A palpable and thickened posterior border will also irritate the tongue. Interference with tongue space, as in an excessively large vertical dimension which causes compensatory protrusion of the tongue, or in a narrow arch which forces the tongue to occupy an unnatural position, may also manifest as nausea.
    الخيار الثالث لا يسبب منعكس إقياء (لأنه امتداد زائد قليلاً للخلف)
    ملاحظة: يضاف لما سبق التلميع الزائد للجهاز وقلقلة الجهاز Protusive imbalance التي تسبب حركة اللعاب تحت حافته الخلفية.

    15. Most common complete denture post insertion complaint after 24 hrs:
    a. Rough.
    b. Overextension causing laceration. ***
    c. Pt not used to new vertical dimension.

    16. Three weeks after delivery of a unilateral distal extension mandibular removable partial denture, a Pt complained of a sensitive abutment tooth, clinical examination reveals sensitivity to percussion of the tooth, the most likely cause is:
    a. Defective occlusion. *** رض إطباقي FILLING OFLOSENESS TO THE DENTURE
    b. Exposed dentine at the bottom of the occlusal rest seats.
    c. Galvanic action between the framework and an amalgam restoration in the abutment tooth.
    Dental Decks – page 618
    مهمممم
    17. PT with lower complete denture, intraoral examination show with slightly elevated lesion with confirmed border, PT history of ill fitting denture. It is by:
    a. Immediate surgical removal.
    b. Instruct PT not to use denture for 3 weeks then follow up. ***
    c. Reassure PT and no need for treatment.

    18. Cause of fracture of occlusal rest:
    a. Shallow preparation in marginal ridge. *** تحضير ضحل بالحفرة الملاصقة
    b. Extension of rest to central fossa.
    c. Improper centric relation.

    1. Complete denture poorly fit and inadequate interocclusal relation:
    a. Relining.
    b. Rebasing.
    c. New denture. ***
    d. None of the above.

    19. Pt. Wears complete denture for 10 years & now he has cancer in the floor of the mouth. What is the firs question that the dentist should ask:
    a- does your denture is ill fitted
    b- smoking. ***+ (80% of the cancer of the floor of the mouth is caused by smoking)
    c- Alcohol
    d- does your denture impinge the o.mucosa. *** (traumatic cause)
    Screening Oral Cancer – Prepared by Bruce F. Barker, D.D.S. and Gerry J. Barker, R.D.H., M.A.
    University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Dentistry

    Ulceration on floor of mouth in edentulous patient,
    initially misinterpreted as denture irritation.

    20. Patient with comp. denture pronouncing F as a V
    anterior teeth are upward from lip line. ***

    dental decks II – page 396
    Placement of maxillary anterior teeth in complete dentures too far from superiorly and anteriorly might result in difficulty in pronouncing F and V sounds
    _______________________
    اجاني باحتمالات هاد السؤال التظليل الاحمر ..ولم يأت الاحتمال المذكور في الاعلى
    ……………………انتباه

    dental decks II – page 396
    Placement of maxillary anterior teeth in complete dentures too far from superiorly and anteriorly might result in difficulty in pronouncing F and V sounds.

    21. pt have a complete denture came to the clinic ,tell you no complaint in the talking ,or in the chewing ,but when you exam him ,you see the upper lip like too long ,deficient in the margins of the lip, reason is?
    A)deficiency in the vertical dimensional
    b)anterior upper teeth are short. ***
    c)deficient in vit B
    أما نقص فيتامين ب يؤدي إلى التهاب صوار الشفة وهو ما يسببه نقص البعد العمودي.
    Q9) Patient come to the clinic with ill-fitting denture, during examination you notice white small elevation on the crest of the lower ridge, what will you tell the patient:
    a) This lesion needs no concern and he should not worry.
    B) The patient should not wear the denture for 2 weeks then follow up. ***
    c) ……x

    Pt construct for him a complete denture after few days he came to u complaining from pain & white spots on the residual ridge do relief in that area & give him ointment & after few days he came again complaining the same but in another area the main cause is :
    a. غير منتظمUneven pressure on the crest of alveolar ridge. ***
    b. Increase vertical dimension

    Pt have denture, after 5 year he complain of ulcer and inflammation in lower buccal vestibule. wt is the Dx:
    1/hypertrophic Frenum. ***
    2/ epulis fissurment.

    65 – Patient presented to you after fitting the immediate denture 5 – 10 months, complaining pain and over tissue in the mandibular, what is the diagnosis:
    1. Epulis fissurment. ***
    2. Hypertrophic Frenum.

    656. Pt with complete denture complain from tightness of denture in morning then become good this due to
    A) relif of denture. *** (because there may be pressure points or areas that the tissues will try to Adjust to it throughout the day)
    B)lack of cheeck elastisty (pressure on the flanges <> displacement of denture)
    C)poor post dam (no posterior seal <> displacement of denture)
    659. A border line diabetic pt came with denture stomatitis you find abundant debris in the tissue surface area of the denture>>the proper management is:
    A. Systemic antibiotic
    B. Topical antifungal. *** (topical + relining with a tissue conditioner + rest of tissues at night +Good oral hygiene)
    C. Systemic antifungal
    D. Topical antibiotic

    1. First step in tx of abused tissue in patient with existing denture is to:
    2. Educate the patient. ***
    Dental decks – page 401
    علاجها عدم استخدام الطقم وممكن نستخدم
    Reslin tissue conditioning materal for tissue recovery program.
    Massage and warm saline rins.
    The primary role of the anterior teeth on a denture is:
    Esthetics
    Dental decks – page 407
    22. Knife ridge should be tx with:
    1/relining soft material
    2/ maximum coverage of flange. ***
    3/ wide occ. Table
    4/all

    Dental Decks – page 414
    If you are fibrating mandibular complete denture for with a patient with knife-edge ridge, you need maximal extension of the denture to help distribute the forces of occlusion over a large area.
    23. Diabetic Pt with ill fit denture, examination of residential ridge help to:
    a. Determine the need for tissue conditioning and surgery. ***
    b. Determine occlusal height.
    c. Determine vertical dimension of occlusion.

    24. Which palatal form is more retentive and offers better stability to complete denture:
    a. V shaped
    b. Wide palate
    c. U shaped ***
    d. Flat palate

    25. An examination of the edentulous mouth of an aged Pt who has wore maxillary complete dentures for many years against six mandibular teeth would probably show:
    a. Cystic degeneration of the foramina of the anterior palatine nerve. استحالة كيسية لثقبة العصب الحنكي الأمامي
    b. Loss of osseous structure in the anterior maxillary arch. ***
    c. Flabby ridge tissue in the posterior maxillary arch. سنخ خلفي ممتص
    d. Insufficient inter occlusal distance.
    Dental decks – page 390
    When a patient wears complet maxillary denture agansit the six mandibular anterior teeth its very common to have to do a reline so often de to loss of
    bone strucutrein anterior maxillary arch.

    26. If the oral tissues are inflamed and traumatized, impression for making a new denture:
    a. Should be started immediately in order to prevent further deterioration. تدهور
    b. The occlusion of the existing denture is adjusted, and tissue condition material is applied, and periodically replaced until the tissue are recovered, then making impression take place. *** تستخدم مكيفات النسج لمعالجة اللثة
    c. The Pt is cautioned to remove the denture out at night.
    d. A & B are correct.
    e. All of the above are correct.

    27. Balanced occlusion GLOSSARY OF PROSTHODONTIC refers to:
    a. The type of occlusion which allows simultaneous contact of the teeth in centric occlusion only.
    b. The type of occlusion which allows simultaneous contact of the teeth in centric and eccentric jaw positions. في العلاقة المركزية والأوضاع اللامركزية
    c. A type of occlusion which is similar to the occlusion of the natural teeth.
    Dental Decks – page 548

    28. In class I partially edentulous lower arch, selection of major connector depend on:
    a. Height of lingual attachment.
    b. Mandibular tori.
    c. Periodontal condition of remaining teeth.
    d. All of the above. ***

    29. In registering the vertical dimension of occlusion for the edentulous patient. The physiological rest dimension: البعد الراحي
    a. Equals the vertical dimension of occlusion. يعادل البعد العمودي الإطباقي
    b. May be exceeded if the appearance of the patient is enhanced. نتجاهله إذا كان مظهر المريض مقبولاً
    c. Is of little importance as it is subject to variations. لا أهمية له لأنه عرضة للتغيرات
    d. Must always be greater than vertical dimension of occlusion. *** أكبر من البعد الإطباقي
    Vdo +iod(average 3mm)=vdr
    Dental Decks – page 496

    Examination of residual ridge for edentulous PT before construction of denture determine stability, support and retention related to the ridge:
    a. True. ***
    b. False.

    30. Upon examination of alveolar ridge of elderly PT for construction of lower denture easily displaceable tissue is seen in the crest of ridge. Management:
    a. Minor surgery is needed.
    b. Inform the PT that retention of denture will decrease.
    c. Special impression technique is required. ***
    المرجع: “Questions and Answers ”
    استخدام طريقة الضغط الانتقائي.
    تسميك الشمع وتثقيب الطايع

    31. In recording man-max relation,the best material used without producing pressure is:
    a. Wax.
    b. Compound.
    c. Bite registration paste (zinc oxide & eugenol paste). ***
    32. In recording jaw relation, best to use:
    a. Occlusal rim with record base. *** الارتفاع الشمعي
    b. Occlusal rim with base wax.
    c. Occlusal rim with nacial frame.
    Occlusal rims: make maxilla-mandibular jaw records.
    32-The goal of construction of occlusion rims is:
    1. To obtain the occlusal plane, vertical dimension, tentative centric relation, face low transfer, placement of the teeth. ***
    2. To obtain the protrusive condylar guidance.
    3. To obtain the lateral condylar posts and incisal guide.
    4. None.

    Dental Decks – page 428
    33. A temporary form representing the base of a denture which is used for making maxillo-manibular (jaw) relative record for arranging teeth or for trail insertion in the mouth is:
    1. Bite rims.
    2. Custom tray.
    3. Set up.
    4. Base plate. ***

    Management knifedge ridge in complete denture:
    a. Reline with resilient material.
    b. Maximum coverage. ***
    c. Wide occlusal label.
    d. All of the above.
    Dental Decks – page
    34. In distal extension p.d during relining occlusal Rest was not seated:
    a. Remove impression and repeat it. ***
    b. Continue and seat in after relining.
    c. Use impression compound.

    1. Occlusal plane should be:
    a. Parallel to interpupillary line.
    b. Parallel to ala tragus line.
    c. At least tongue is just above occlusal plane.
    d. All of the above. ***

    35. Occlusal rest function:
    a. To resist lateral chewing movement.
    b. To resist vertical forces. ***
    c. Stability.
    d. Retention.
    وظيفة الضمات مقاومة القوى العمودية.

    36. Artificial teeth best to be selected by:
    a. Preextraction cord. ***
    b. Postextraction cord.
    Dental Decks – page 408
    37. Selection of type of major connector in partial denture is determined:
    a. During examination.
    b. During diagnosis and planning. ***
    c. During bite registration.

    38. Which of the following statement about the mechanism of action for denture adhesive is not correct:
    a. It depends in part on physical force and viscosity. *** لزوجة
    b. Carboxyl group provide bio adhesion.
    c. Greater water solubility increase duration of adhesion.
    d. Zinc salts have been associated with stronger longer adhesion.
    يزيد الثبات مع زيادة الارتباط الميكانيكي ولكن ينقص مع زيادة لزوجة اللعاب.
    كما يزيد الثبات كل من مركبات الكربوكسيل وأملاح الزنك وزيادة سيولة الماء.
    39. Rigid palatal strap major connector. The material of construction is
    .co-cr
    Gold ti
    .gold ……..
    .wrought wire

    39 ) best material for major connector.
    Gold wrought wire
    chrome cobalt ***
    gold palladium
    titanium

    16.60 YEARS old patient need to make complete denture with thick labial frenum with wide base. The operation
    .vestibuloplasty. *** رأب دهليز الفم
    .z-plasty
    .subperiostum incision قطع تحت السمحاق
    .deepmucoperiosteum incision تحت السمحاق المخاطي

    “Peterson’s Principles of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 2nd Ed 2004 page 173”
    Z-plasty are effective for narrow frenum attachments. Vestibuloplasty is often indicated for frenum attachments with a wide base.

    40. Three year old pt, has anodontia (no teeth at all), what would you do:
    a) full denture ***
    b) implant
    c) space maitainer
    d)no intervention

    “PAEDIATRIC DENTISTRY – 3rd Ed. (2005)” page 294
    In cases of anodontia, full dentures are required. These can be provided, albeit with likely limited success, from about 3 years of age, with the possibility of implant support for prostheses provided in adulthood.
    B)-autoimmune factors++ (one of the signs of Autoimm dis’s)
    dental deck – page 1334

    1. Advantage of Wrought Wire in RPD over Cast Wire:
    a-Less irritation to the abutment.

    2. Why we use acrylic more than complete metal palate in complete denture:
    – Cant do relining for the metal. ***

    3. Relining of denture:
    – remove all or part of fitting surface of the denture and add acrylic
    – add acrylic to the base of the denture to increase vertical dimension. ***

    4. Rebasing of Complete Denture mean:
    a-Addition or change in the fitting surface
    b-Increasing the vertical dimension
    c-Change all the fitting surface. ***
    المرجع: أكسفورد ص 401
    Rebasing is replacement of most or all of the denture base.
    وفيه يجب عدم تغيير البعد العمودي، أما التبطين فهو إضافة أو تعديل باطن الجهاز.

    21. Reciprocal arm in RPD help to resist the force applied by which parts:
    -retentive arm. ***
    – guide plane and …

    44. Material which used for flasking complete denture:
    – plaster. ***
    – stone
    -refractory

    in inflamed muocosa due to wearing denture to when do new denture
    a: immediatly
    b: after week
    c: put tissue conditioning material and wait until the tissue heal and take impression after 2 weeks. ***
    Patient has a palatal torus b/w hard & soft palate, the major connector of choice
    anteroposterior palatal strap-
    u shaped ***
    posterior palatal strap-
    34-The base plate could bee made by:
    1. Acrylic plate.
    2. Ceramic plate.
    3. Wax plate.
    4. A and c. ***

    35-The vertical height of the maxillary occlusion rim from the reflection of the cast is:
    1. 12mm.
    2. 22mm. ***
    3. 32mm.
    4. 42mm.

    36-The anterior width of the maxillary occlusion rim is:
    1. 5mm. ***
    2. 10mm.
    3. 15mm.
    4. 20mm.

    37-The posterior width of the maxillary occlusion:
    1. 8-10mm. ***
    2. 8-15mm.
    3. 10-15mm.
    4. 15-20mm.

    38-The anterior height of the mandibular occlusion rim is:
    1. 6mm.
    2. 16mm. ***
    3. 26mm.
    4. 36mm.

    39-The posterior height of mandibular occlusion rim is:
    1. Equal to the point representing 1/2 of the height of retro molar pad. ***
    2. Equal to the point representing 1/2 of the height of the frenum areas.
    3. Equal to the point representing 1/2 of the height of the alveolar ridge.
    4. None.

    40-To record the occlusal plane in order to:
    1. To determine the amount of space between the mandible and the maxilla which will be occupied by an artificial teeth
    2. To determine vertical and horizontal level of the teeth.
    3. A and B. ***
    4. None.

    41-To record the vertical dimension in order to:
    1. To determine the amount of space between the mandible and the maxilla which will be occupied by an artificial teeth.
    2. To determine vertical and horizontal level of the teeth. ***
    3. A and B.
    4. None.

    1-The protrusive condylar guidance should be set on the articulator at:
    1. 40 degree.
    2. 50 degree.
    3. 60 degree.
    1. 70 degree. ***

    2-The lateral condylar posts should be set on the articulator at:
    2. Zero degree. ***
    1. 20 degree.
    2. 40 degree.
    3. None.

    3-The incisal guide should be set on the articulator at:
    3. Zero degree. ***
    1. 20 degree.
    2. 40 degree.
    3. None.

    4-The primary goal of anterior tooth selection is:
    1. To provide good functional requirements.
    4. To satisfy aesthetic requirements. ***
    2. To let the patient feel comfortable.
    3. None.

    5-The primary goal of posterior tooth selection is:
    5. To provide good functional requirements. ***
    1. To satisfy aesthetic requirements.
    2. To satisfy sychological requirements.
    3. None.

    6-You need…….to get the teeth shade:
    6. Shade guide. ***
    1. Incisal guide.
    2. Acrylic teeth.
    3. Porcelain teeth.

    7-The teeth materials are:
    1. Acrylic teeth.
    2. Porcelain teeth.
    7. A and B. ***
    3. None.

    8-The width of the lower teeth is:
    1. 1/2 of the maxillary anterior teeth in normal jaw relationship.
    2. 1/3 of the maxillary anterior teeth in normal jaw relationship.
    3. 3/4 of the maxillary anterior teeth in normal jaw relationship. ***
    4. None.

    9-Generally posterior teeth are classified into:
    1. Anatomy (cusp) teeth.
    2. Non-anatomy (cuspless) teeth or flat.
    3. A and B. ***
    4. None.

    10-The process of positioning or arranging teeth on the denture base is termed:
    1. Casting.
    2. Investing.
    3. Setting up. ***
    4. Flasking.

    11-Important functions must be considered when arranging anterior teeth:
    1. Aesthetics.
    2. Incision.
    3. Phonetics.
    4. All.

    12-Which surface of the central incisor that contacts the median line:
    1. Distal.
    2. Mesial. ***
    3. Buccal.
    4. Lingual.

    13-The incisal edge of the maxillary lateral incisor is……..above and parallel to the occlusal plane:
    1. 1/2 mm. ***
    2. 1 mm.
    3. 2 mm.
    4. 3 mm.

    14-The long axis of the maxillary cuspid canine is inclined slightly to the:
    1. Mesial.
    2. Distal. ***
    3. Buccal.
    4. Lingual.

    17-The long axis of the maxillary first molar is inclined to
    1. Buccal.
    2. Mesial.
    3. Distal.
    4. Lingual. ***

    15-It is called ……….. When the occlusal surfaces of the right and left posterior teeth are on the same level:
    1. Vertical plane.
    2. Horizontal plane. ***
    3. Compensating curve.
    4. All.

    16-The ………. Of the maxillary first bicuspid is raised approximately 1/2mm of the ocllusal plane:
    1. Buccal cusp.
    2. Lingual cusp. ***
    3. Mesial surface.
    4. All.
    18-All maxillary posterior teeth touch the occlusal plane EXCEPT:
    1. First bicuspid.
    2. Second bicuspid.
    3. First molar.
    4. Second molar. ***

    19-The distance between the lingual surfaces of the maxillary anterior teeth and the labial surfaces of the mandibular anterior teeth is:
    1. Vertical overlap (overbite).
    2. Horizontal overlap (overjet). ***
    3. Occlusal plane.
    4. All.

    20-The distance between the incisal edges of the maxillary and mandibular anterior teeth is:
    1. Horizontal overlap (overjet).
    2. Vertical overlap (overbite). ***
    3. Occlusal plane.
    4. All.

    21-The average distance between the lingual surface of the maxillary anterior teeth and the buccal surface of the mandibular anterior teeth is:
    1. 1/2mm.
    2. 1mm.
    3. 2mm.
    4. 3mm.***

    22-Which tooth of the mandibular anterior teeth that touch the lingual surface of the maxillary anterior teeth in normal centric relation?
    1. Central incisor.
    2. Lateral incisor.
    3. Cuspid (Canine). ***
    4. None.

    24-The tip of cusp of the mandibular cuspid is one above the occlusal plane to establish ………. Of the maxillary anterior:
    1. Horizontal overlap.
    2. Occlusal plane. ***
    3. Vertical overlap.
    4. All.

    23-The mesial surface of the mandibular lateral incisor contacts:
    1. The mesial surface of the central incisor.
    2. The distal surface of the central incisor. ***
    3. The mesial surface of the cuspid.
    4. The distal surface of the cuspid.

    25-The relation involves the movement of the mandibular to the side either right or left in which the act of mastication is to be accomplished. Therefore the side to which the mandible moves is called:
    1. Balancing side.
    2. Working side. ***
    3. Compensating side.
    4. All.

    26-When the mandible moves to the working side, the opposite side cusp to cusp contacts in order to balance stresses of mastication. This relation is called:
    1. Working relation.
    2. Balancing relation. ***
    3. Occlusal relation.
    4. None.

    27-In order to distribute the primary forces of mastication, to fall within the base of the denture, the mandibular teeth are set:
    1. On the bucal edge of the ridge.
    2. On the lingual edge of the ridge.
    3. On the crest of the ridge. ***
    4. All.

    28-The mandibular posterior tooth that has no contact with any maxillary teeth during the balancing occlusion is:
    1. First bicuspid. ***
    2. Second bicuspid.
    3. First molar.
    4. Second molar.

    29-The used device in flasking procedure is called:
    1. Articulator.
    2. Separating medium.
    3. Flask. ***
    4. None.

    30-We Vaseline the inner surface of the flasks all rounds:
    1. To help in the packing procedure.
    2. To separate the models (casts) safety. ***
    3. A and B.
    4. None.

    31-The procedure that follows the flasking procedure is called:
    1. Polishing.
    2. Deflasking.
    3. Packing. ***
    4. Curing the acrylic.

    33-Teeth selection in setting up teeth gsf is based of these factors:
    1. Shade of the teeth.
    2. Size and shape of the teeth.
    3. Angle of the teeth.
    4. A and B. ***
    5. All the above.

    19-The prepared surface of an abutment to receive the rest is called:
    1. Minor connecter.
    2. Major connecter.
    3. Rest seat. ***
    4. None.

    20-The part of a removable partial denture that contacts a tooth it affords primarily vertical support is called:
    1. Minor connecter.
    2. Major connecter.
    3. Rest. ***
    4. None.

    21-The part of a removable partial denture is:
    1. Rests.
    2. Major connecters.
    3. Retainers.
    4. All. ***

    22-A rigid part of the partial denture casting that unites the rests and another part of the prosthesis to the opposite side of the arch is called:
    1. Minor connecter.
    2. Major connecter. ***
    3. Retainer.
    4. Rest.

    24-The part of a removable denture that forms a structure of metal struts that engages and unites the metal casting with the resin forming the denture base is called:
    1. Minor connecter.
    2. Major connecter.
    3. Denture base connecter. ***
    4. Retainer.

    26-The rests are classified into:
    1. Anterior rests.
    2. Posterior rests.
    3. A and B. ***
    4. None.

    30-The surveyor instrument consists of:
    1. Vertical arm.
    2. Cast platform or table.
    3. Small analysis rod.
    4. All. ***

    31-The primary guiding surface that determines the insertion for the partial denture is:
    1. The tooth surface opposite to the edentulous areas.
    2. The tooth surface adjacent to the edentulous areas. ***
    3. None.

    32-The one who is supposed to give the correct design of the removable partial denture:
    1. Prosthodontist. ***
    2. Technician.
    3. Assistant.
    4. None.

    33-To fabricate a removable partial casting requires making a second cast of high-heat investment material this cast is called:
    1. Study cast.
    2. Master cast.
    3. Refractory cast. ***
    4. All.

    34-Kennedy divided all partial edentulous arches:
    1. Tow main types.
    2. Three main types.
    3. Four main types. ***
    4. Five main types.

    35-According to the Kennedy’s classification, the bilateral edentulous areas located posterior to the remaining natural teeth is:
    1. Class one. ***
    2. Class tow.
    3. Class three.
    4. Class four.

    36-According to the Kennedy’s classification, unilateral edentulous area with natural teeth remaining both anterior and posterior is:
    3. Class one.
    4. Class tow.
    5. Class three. ***
    6. Class four.

    41. The indication for the use of lingual plate major connector include:
    a. For the purpose of retention.
    b. When the lingual frenum is high or when there is a shallow lingual sulcus.
    c. To prevent the movement of mandibular anterior teeth.
    d. All of the above. ***
    Dental decks 641
    الصفيحة اللسانية الرئيسية تستخدم عند الحاجة للتثبيت وفي حال وجود لجام لساني مرتفع أو ضحالة بالميزاب اللساني أو لمنع حركة الأسنان الأمامية المتقلقلة.
    كما تستخدم عند وجود عرن عظمي لا يمكن إزالته وعند ميلان القواطع السفلية لسانياً.
    مضادات استطبابها: ازدحام الأسنان الأمامية السفلية –
    Lingual plate:
    a. Shallow sulcus
    b. Mobile anterior teeth
    c. Deep sulcus
    d. A+b ***
    e. All of above

    27. Lingual bar contraindication:
    – short lingual sulcus
    – long lingual sulcus
    – too crowded lower anterior teeth***
    Dental decks 641
    القوس اللساني يستخدم في حال وجود لجام لساني منخفض أو عمق بالميزاب اللساني أو ازدحام القواطع السفلية.
    مضادات استطبابه: عند وجود عرن عظمي لا يمكن إزالته وعند ميلان القواطع السفلية لسانياً.

    PROSTHO

    42. To a great extent, the forces occurring through a removable partial denture can be widely distributed and minimized by the following methods: لأفضل مدى توزيع وتقليل القوى الإطباقية
    a. Proper location of the occlusal rests.
    b. Selection of lingual bar major connector
    c. Developing balanced occlusion.
    d. All of the above.
    حست في هذا السؤال شوي .بس c اكيد مو صح لانه الbalanced occ هذا concept يستخدم في الsetting of complete denture teeth بس مو لما يكون عندنا natural teeth.
    و الb>> عليها كلام لانه لو قال lingual plate كان قلنا ممكن….
    a هي اكثر وحده منطقيه لانهrests هي الي تساعد to direct ال occlusal forces along the long accses of the abutment tooth
    هذا والله اعلم……

    7.To a great extent, the forces occurring through a removable partial denture can be widely distributed and minimized by the following methods:
    a.Proper location of the occlusal rests.
    b.Selection of lingual bar major connector
    c.Developing balanced occlusion.
    d.All of the above.
    أنا جاوبت d
    43. Class III jaw relation in edentulous PT:
    a. It will affect size of maxillary teeth.
    b. Affect retention of lower denture.
    c. Affect esthetic and arrangement of maxillary denture.
    d. All of the above. الأصح

    2. Check biting in lower denture can occur if:
    a. Occlusal plane above tongue.
    b. Occlusal plane below tongue.
    c. Occlusal plane at lower lip.
    d. None of the above. ***

    Complete Denture 17th Ed
    Cheek, lip, or tonaue biting:
    a. Cheek biting is the most common and is mainly due to inadequate overjet.
    Solution: Increase the overjet by reducing the buccal of the lower posterior teeth. Usually necessary in molar area only.
    b. Tongue biting -increase the overjet by reducing the lingual of the upper posterior teeth; usually the molars.
    c. Lip biting is not common and is usually due to poor tooth placement or poor neuromuscular control.
    ولكن حسب Dental Decks – page 394 يحدث عض الخد عند نقص البعد العمودي الإطباقي هل هو = Occlusal plane above tongue.؟؟؟

    229) when increase vertical dimension you have to:
    1/ increase minimal need
    2/construct anterior teeth first then posterior teeth
    4/ use provisional crown for 2 months
    5/all

    44. 49) patient who has un-modified class II kennedy classification, with good periodontal condition and no carious lesion the best clasp to use on the other side <teeth side>
    a) reciprocal clasp (aker’s clasp). ***
    b) ring clasp
    c) embrasure clasp
    d) …

    45. Edentulous pt cl II kenndy classification 2nd premolar used as abutment when we surving we found mesial under cut wt is the proper clasp used:
    1/wrought wire with round cross section
    2/ wrought wire with half round cross section
    3/cast clasp with round cross section
    4/ cast clasp with half cross section

    46. A removable partial denture patient, Class II Kennedy classification. The last tooth on the left side is the 2nd premolar which has a distal caries. What’s the type of the clasp you will use for this premolar:
    a) gingivally approaching clasp. ***
    b) ring clasp

    1. when all the teeth are missing EXCEPT the 2 canines , according to kennedy classification it is:
    a- Class I modification 1. ***
    لأن الصنف الرابع (الفقد الأمامي) ليس له تعديل

    19- Balance occlusion should be utilize in natural dentition. & may all or some of the teeth contact in both side regardless where mandible move.
    -.1st true & 2nd false
    – 1st false & 2nd true
    – both false
    – both true

    20. Balance occlusion in complete denture help in:
    -retention
    – stability &…..

    the favored relationship in case of fabrication of a lower class 1 RPD opposing a natural dentition is
    1- prognathism
    2- working side
    3- balancing side
    4- none of the above

    Regardless of the method used in creating a harmonious
    functional occlusion, an evaluation of the
    existing relationships of the opposing natural teeth
    must be made and is accomplished with a diagnostic
    mounting. This evaluation is in addition to, and in
    conjunction with, other diagnostic procedures that
    contribute to an adequate diagnosis and treatment
    plan.
    Diagnostic casts provide an opportunity to evaluate
    the relationship of remaining oral structures
    when correctly mounted on a semiadjustable articulator
    by use of a face-bow transfer and interocclusal
    records. Diagnostic casts are mounted in centric
    relation (most retruded relation of the mandible to
    the maxillae) so that deflective occlusal contacts can
    be correlated with those observed in the mouth.
    Deflective contacts of opposing teeth are usually
    destructive to the supporting structures involved and
    should be eliminated.

    28- to design a lingual bar we should determine:
    a- The inferior border of lingual sulcus
    b- Superior border of lingual sulcus
    c- …………………..
    اختيار الوصلة الرئيسية يعتمد على ارتفاع الميزاب من حدوده السفلية إلى العلوية، أي الخيارين.

    which of following functions dose proper positioning of posterior palatal seal serve:
    a- reduce pt discomfort when touch the posterior border with the dorsum of tongue.
    b- maxillary dentur retension
    c- copensate the acrylic dimensional chang…….
    d- B and C
    بعا صيغة السؤال معروفة عندنا بس الإجابات مختلفة لكن واضح انو الجواب الصحيح هو الاول
    السؤال بالعربي
    أي من الوظائف التالية نتحصل عليه من الموقع المثالي لل posterior palatal seal

    Which will design first in the study cast of RPD with a lingual bar major connector:
    – The lower border of lingual bar major connector
    – the upper border of lingual bar****
    – indirect rest and rest seat.
    – –

    Edentulous pt cl II kenndy classification 2nd premolar used as abutment when we surving we found mesial under cut wt is the proper clasp used:
    1/wrought wire with round cross section***
    2/ wrought wire with half round cross section
    3/cast clasp with round cross section
    4/ cast clasp with half cross section

    10. The posterior extension of max complete denture can be detected by the followings EXCEPT:
    a. Hamular notch. الثلمة الجناحية الفكية
    b. Fovea palatine. *** النقرتان الحنكيتان
    c. Vibrating line.
    الاجابة الاولى الاصح
    dental decks
    p439

    10- for recording of vertical dimention we use
    Willis Gauge. ***
    caliper.
    Face bow

    Oxford Handbook of Clinical Dentistry – 4th Ed. (2005) – page 194
    Resting face height is assessed using:
    • A Willis gauge, to measure the distance between the base of nose and the underside of the chin. Is only accurate to ±1 mm.
    • Spring dividers, to measure the distance between a dot placed on both the chin and the tip of the patient’s nose. This method is less popular with patients and is C/I for bearded gentlemen (or ladies!).
    • The patient’s appearance and speech.
    Questions and Answers for Dental Nurses
    Willis gauge is used to record the occlusal face height of the the patient.
    Dental Decks – page 420
    A face-bow is a caliper-like device used to record the patient’s maxilla/hinge axis relationship (opening and closing axis). It is also used to transfer this relationship to the articulator during the mounting of the maxillary cast.

    17) patient with 5 years old denture has a severe gag reflex , upon history he says he had the same symptoms in the first few days of the denture delievery and it went all alone
    patient has severe gag reflex
    patient has underlying systemic condition. ***هذه الاجابه الصحيحه
    denture is overextended

    17) patient with 5 years old denture has a severe gag reflex , upon history he says he had the same symptoms in the first few days of the denture delievery and it went all alone
    patient has severe gag reflex
    patient has underlying systemic condition. ***
    denture is overextended

    patient with 5 years old denture has a severe gag reflex , upon history he says he had the same symptoms in the first few days of the denture delievery and it went all alone
    patient has severe gag reflex
    patient has underlying systemic condition. ***
    denture is overextended

    patient with 5 years old denture has a severe gag reflex , upon history he says he had the same symptoms in the first few days of the denture delievery and it went all alone
    patient has severe gag reflex
    patient has underlying systemic condition. ***
    denture is overextended
    بها السؤال المريض بيقول انو راح الاحساس بالايام القليلة الاولى فانا بظن انو الاجابة الاولى هي الصحيحة ولا شو رايكم

    للمعلومية الخيار كان pt has extensive sever gag reflex
    الله اعلم بس تركيزهم على مدى سوء ال gag خلاني احس انو لو المشكلة extensive sever gag مش ممكن تروح في ايام لحالها من غير تدخل من الدكتور و ترجع فجأة لحالها بعد خمس سنين. و الله اعلم هذا رأي شخصي مش اكثر

    للمعلومية الخيار كان pt has extensive sever gag reflex
    الله اعلم بس تركيزهم على مدى سوء ال gag خلاني احس انو لو المشكلة extensive sever gag مش ممكن تروح في ايام لحالها من غير تدخل من الدكتور و ترجع فجأة لحالها بعد خمس سنين. و الله اعلم هذا رأي شخصي مش اكثر

    17) patient with 5 years old denture has a severe gag reflex , upon history he says he had the same symptoms in the first few days of the denture delievery and it went all alone:
    patient has severe gag reflex.
    patient has underlying systemic condition. ***
    denture is overextended.

    Nausea (gag reflex) is the urge to vomit. It can be brought by many causes including, systemic illnesses, such as influenza, medications, pain, and inner ear disease.
    لو كان الخيار الأول لما توقف منعكس الإقياء أبداً، ولو كان الخيار الثالث لبقي المنعكس حتى يتم إزالة الامتداد الزائد للجهاز، الخيار الثاني منطقي لأن بعض الأمراض العامة تسبب منعكس الإقياء.

    Patient have a complete denture come to your clinic he complain of gagging he wear the denture for 5 years he feel the gagging in the first few days and it disappear what is the cause:
    1. Extend of the upper denture.
    2. The patient has sensitivity to gagging.

    31. The posterior seal in the upper complete denture serves the following functions:
    a. It reduces Pt discomfort when contact occurs between the dorsum of the tongue and the posterior end of the denture base. ظهر اللسان
    b. Retention of the maxillary denture.
    c. It compensate for dimensional changes which occur in the acrylic denture base during processing.
    d. A& b are correct. ***
    أرجو مراجعة440منdetal decks والرد علي

    أول جوابين لأن حسب:
    المرجع: التعويضات المتحركة الكاملة – جامعة دمشق 2006
    المهمة الرئيسية للختم الحنكي الخلفي هي تثبيت جهاز الفك العلوي، والسد الحنكي الخلفي الذي تم تشخيصه وتصميمه بشكل صحيح في الجهاز السني سوف يحد من إدراك المريض بهذه المنطقة مع اختفاء لاحق لمنعكس الإقياء، ويحافظ على التماس المستمر بين قاعدة الجهاز السني والحنك الرخو أثناء الحركات الوظيفية العادية، مما سيؤدي إلى عدم اندخال الطعام تحت الناحية الخلفية من الجهاز السني، إضافة إلى تأمين ختم جيد للحواف يؤدي إلى تشكيل صمامة هوائية تمنع تسرب الهواء إلى ما تحت قاعدة الجهاز، وبالتالي زيادة الثبات وكذلك التخفيف من حدة عدم راحة المريض عند ظهور التلامس بين ظهر اللسان ونهاية القسم الخلفي من قاعدة الجهاز السني لأن الحد الخلفي من الجهاز السني سوف يمس الأنسجة الحنكية ويصبح غير محسوس من قبل اللسان مما يؤدي إلى عدم انزعاج المريض وغياب منعكس الإقياء لديه.

    وفي Dental decks 440
    compensate for shrinkage of the denture resin during prossesing

    يفترض وجود خيار ” كل ما سبق”

    وإلا أول جوابين

    وهذا إذا كانت هذه هي خيارات السؤال فعلاً كما كتبها الزملاء

    أرجو من الزملاء قراءة Dental decks2 بالتوازي مع الملف، واستخراج أي فكرة تخص الأسئلة.

    19. All relate to retention of maxillary complete denture except:
    a. Tongue movement.
    b. Type of saliva. الأصح
    جهاز علوي؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟

    السؤال يخص جهاز كامل علوي، في جميع المراجع والصفحات التي وجدتها، يوجد تركيز أكثر على نوعية اللعاب، وبخصوص اللسان فالمذكور هو توضعه بالناحية الأمامية وإمكانية إثارة منعكس الإقياء إذا تحرك الجهاز أولاً ثم لامس اللسان.

    دور اللعاب دور مؤكد من خلال إفرازه من غدد قبة الحنك اللعابية في الرابط التالي:
    http://www.studentals.com/uploaded/2_11205876676.doc

    من حيث النوعية:
    § لعاب رقيق (غير لزج): ينقص ثبات واستقرار الجهاز / لعاب قليل: الجهاز سيسبب تخريش اللثة والتهابها.
    § لعاب كثيف ولزج (مخاطي): يُشكِّل طبقة يلتصق بالجهاز ويزعج المريض.

    وحسب كتاب التعويضات المتحركة الكاملة:
    “وأما الغدد الحنكية فكثيرة جداً، وتتجمع خاصة عند اتصال قبة الحنك الصلبة بالشراع الرخو، وهي ذات تأثير يعين على ثبات الجهاز وذلك لأنّها تفرز طبقة لعابية تحول دون احتكاك الجهاز بالغشاء المخاطي، وهي أشبه بوسادة مائية توزع الضغط توزيعاً متساوياً في المنطقة الخلفية ( السد الخلفي )، وتؤمن مرونة كافية للنسج التي تقع بتماس الجهاز المتحرك، فتساهم هذه المفرزات اللزجة بثبات الجهاز .”

    حسب كل هذا التحليل الخيار الأول هو الصحيح أي أن تأثير حركة اللسان أقل أهمية من تأثير اللعاب في ثبات الجهاز العلوي.

    Except A

    47. All relate to retention of maxillary complete denture EXCEPT:
    a. Tongue movement. ***
    b. Type of saliva.

    أكسفورد ص405
    عوامل الثبات الشخصية: حجم وكمية اللعاب – شكل الحواف السنخية – التكيف.
    أخطاء في الجهاز: امتداد محيطي غير صحيح – أسنان في منطقة غير محايدة – إطباق غير موازن – نقص التلميع

    http://www.studentals.com/uploaded/2_11205876676.doc
    من حيث النوعية:
    لعاب رقيق (غير لزج): ينقص ثبات واستقرار الجهاز / لعاب قليل: الجهاز سيسبب تخريش اللثة والتهابها.
    لعاب كثيف ولزج (مخاطي): يُشكِّل طبقة يلتصق بالجهاز ويزعج المريض

    التعويضات المتحركة الكاملة:
    “وأما الغدد الحنكية فكثيرة جداً، وتتجمع خاصة عند اتصال قبة الحنك الصلبة بالشراع الرخو، وهي ذات تأثير يعين على ثبات الجهاز وذلك لأنّها تفرز طبقة لعابية تحول دون احتكاك الجهاز بالغشاء المخاطي، وهي أشبه بوسادة مائية توزع الضغط توزيعاً متساوياً في المنطقة الخلفية ( السد الخلفي )، وتؤمن مرونة كافية للنسج التي تقع بتماس الجهاز المتحرك، فتساهم هذه المفرزات اللزجة بثبات الجهاز .

    حل عبيدة

    السوال الرابع :لأفضل طريقة للحام المهماز المكسور في الجهاز الجزئي المتحرك :
    *****لحام كهربائي
    لحام بالليزر
    ………

    ………
    ممكن صيغت السوال بالنجليزي والجواب ايضا؟؟
    How can u repair fractured rest(in the place where it passes over the marginal ridge of the tooth ) in removable partial denture?
    A-spot welding
    b-electric soldering
    c-industrial brazing

    #82243
     brandy689 
    Participant

    1. The x- ray of choice to detect the proximal caries of the anterior teeth is:
    a. Periapical x-ray. ***
    b. Bitewing x-ray.
    c. Occlusal x-ray.
    d. None of the above.
    المجنحة للخلفية فقط
    2. Bitewing exam is used to diagnose EXCEPT:
    1. Proximal caries.
    2. Secondary caries.
    3. Gingival status.
    4. Periapical abscess***
    لأن الصورة المجنحة لا تظهر ذرى الأسنان.

    3. Radiotherapy increase caries by decreasing salivary secration:
    a. True. ***
    b. False.

    4. To detect interproximal caries in primary teeth, the best film is:
    a. Periapical.
    b. Bitewing. ***
    c. Occlusal.

    5. When using the buccal object rule in horizontal angulation, the lingual object in relation to the buccal object: تزوي
    a. Move away from the x-ray tube head.
    b. Move with the x-ray tube head. ***
    c. Move in an inferior direction from the x-ray tube head.
    d. Move in a superior direction from the x-ray tube head.
    e. None of the above.
    Dental Decks – page 72
    If the object appears to move in the same direction as the x-ray tube, it is in the lingual aspect.

    When take x ray in upper premolar to locate lingual root using mesial shift it will apear
    a: distal
    b: buccal
    c: lingual
    d: mesial. ***

    11) While taking X-ray for upper right first premolar with two equal roots
    Using mesial slob, its lingual root will move [ comparing to the zigomatic process ]:
    – distal.
    – Mesial***
    – Palatal
    – Lingual
    6. Radiographic examination in impacted teeth is useful to demonstrate:
    a. Proximity of the roots to the adjacent anatomical structures.
    b. Associated pathology.
    c. All of the above. ***
    The criteria for imaging impacted teeth include identifying the impactions within the confines of the surrounding alveolar bone, then to determine their location relative to adjacent teeth and vital structures in the dento-alveolar complex and then finally to evaluate whether there is pathology
    Use of Tomography For Evaluating Impacted Posterior Teeth
    http://www.aadmrt.org/currents/abramovitch_spring03_print.htm

    7. A U- shaped radiopaque structure in the upper 1st molar x-ray is: ظليل
    a. The zygomatic process. ***
    b. Maxillary sinus wall

    “Dental Radiographic Diagnosis by Dr. Thunthy – page 44”
    And
    Dental Decks – page 150

    8. When take an x-ray to pregnant lady, we use all of this method EXCEPT:
    a. Digital x-ray.
    b. High sensitive film.
    c. Paralleling tech (Long cone) 16 inch.
    d. Bisecting algle (short cone) 8 inch. ***
    e. Lead apron with thyroid collar.

    Dental decks – page 4
    the 8 inch=20 cm short cone technique exposes more tissue by producing divergent beam.
    the 16 inch=41 cm long cone technique reduce amount of exposed tissue by producing less divergent beam a sharper image
    القمع القصير يعرض المريضة لأشعة أكثر أما الأشعة في تقنية القمع البعيد فتتناثر خارج جسم المريضة، وإذا قال قائل إن طريقة القمع الطويل تحتاج زمن أطول للتعريض للأشعة لزيادة وضوح الصورة يكون الجواب ببساطة: خطر قرب القمع لا يمكن تلافيه، وبالمقابل ومن أجل مراعاة وضع الحامل ليس من الضروري إطالة زمن التشعيع
    Dental Decks – page 48
    The intensity of the radiation is inversely proportional to the square of the distance.
    كمية الأشعة تتناسب عكساً مع المسافة بين قمع الأشعة.
    9. When take x-ray we should stand:
    a. 6 feet away in 90-135 angle.

    10. Disadvantage of digital x-ray EXCEPT:
    a. Large disk space Storage
    b. Clarity and resolution. ***
    c. Expensive
    من مميزات التصوير الرقمي إمكانية التحكم بالصورة.
    13. Radiographic evaluation in extraction EXCEPT:
    a. Relationship of associated vital structures.
    B. Root configuration and surrounding bone condition.
    C. Access to the tooth, crown condition and tooth mobility.
    D. All of the above
    e. A & B

    17 – Pt presented with vehicle accident u suspect presence of bilateral condylar fracture what is the best view to diagnose condylar Fracture:
    1. Occiptomenatal.
    2. Reverse towne. ***
    3. Lat oblique 30 degree.
    Reverse towne for fracture of condylar neck &ramus areas (dental decks)
    Reverse Townes position, beam 30° up to horizontal. Used for condyles. (Oxford)

    41. The radiograph shows condylar head orientation and facial symmetry
    a. Submentovertex
    b. Reverse town ***
    c. Opg
    d. Transorbital.
    “US Army medical course – Dental Radiography – page 376″

    42) To check TMJ range of movement:
    a) cranial imagery
    B) arthrography ***
    c) traditional tomography
    d) computerized tomography
    ” oxford handbook of clinical dentistry 4ed 2005 oxford up – mitchell david Mitchell”
    يتم في البداية حقن مادة ذات تباين عالي ، ثم عمل سلسلة أشعات عادية أو مقطعية، من أجل عمل تسلسل للحركة الخاصة بالمفصل…
    617. To check a perforation in the desk of the tmj we need:
    A) cranial imagery
    B) arthrography. *** (CT after injection of a high contrast fluid)
    C) traditional tomography
    D) computerized tomography. ***

    42. The imaging showing disk position and morphology and TMJ bone:
    a. MRI. *** الرنين المغناطيسي
    b. CT
    c. ARTHROGRAPHY
    d. Plain radiograph
    e. Plain tomography

    Dental secrets – 107
    MRI is better at imaging the soft tissue of the disk, but CT is better for almost all other investiagions of the TMJ.

    1-what kinds of radiographs which we do not use for TMJ movements?
    A- transcranial
    b-computerized t
    c-conventional t
    d-arthrography

    11. Child with traumatized lip, no tooth mobility, what will you do first:
    a) Radiograph to check if there is foreign body. ***
    b) Refer to the physician for sensitivity test.
    C) ….?
    كتاب الأطفال
    353) Patient came to your clinic complaining of pain, upon examination you can’t find a clueالحل. What’s the next logical step to do in investigation استجواب
    A) Panoramic x-ray. ***
    B) CT Scan
    C) MRI
    D) Regular tomography

    14 – The maximum dose of X-ray exposure dose for radiographic technique:
    1. 100 milli roentgens per week. ***
    2. 10 roentgens per week.
    3. 100 roentgens per week.
    4. 300 roentgens per week.

    Dental Decks – page 62
    Person who works near radiation can be exposed in one year to a maximum dose of 5 Rem (0.1 Rem per week)
    الجرعة المسموح بالتعرض لها سنوياً هي 5 روتنجن
    أي الجرعة الأسبوعية = 5 روتنجن ÷ 52 أسبوع = حوالي 100 ميلي روتنجن بالأسبوع.
    14 – The maximum dose of X-ray exposure dose for radiographic technique:
    1. 100 mini roentgens per week.
    2. 10 roentgens per week.
    3. 100 roentgens per week.
    4. 300 roentgens per week.

    اعتقد ان الجواب هو رقم 1حسب ما ورد في كتاب الاشعة في جامعة دمشق
    وايضا حسب دنتل ديكس صفحة 62 طبعا الجواب 100ميللي رونتجينز في الاسبوع

    طبعا الجواب 100ميللي رونتجينز كل اسبوع وليس mini
    340) Patient complaining from pain in the floor of the mouth (beneath the lower jaw) your diagnosis is related to the salivary glands, what’s the best x-ray to help you:
    A)panoramic
    B)occlusal
    C)sialograph. *** (Specialized radiograph for the Salivary gland disorders)

    Dental secrets – page 107
    Because the salivary glands consist of soft tissue, they cannot be seen on radiographs unless special steps are taken to make them visible. In a technique called sialography.

    Radio

    whate is the first sing of fracture for face in x_ray
    1_overlap of bone
    2_fluid in maxilary sinuce
    3_suture
    4_all of the above
    ……..

    24. Digital radiography is a technique that shows transition from white to black. Its main advantage is the ability to manipulate the image by computer
    a. 1st T, 2nd F
    b. 1st F, 2nd T
    c. Both T
    d. Both F

    المطلوب هو مرجع يقيم ترتيب أهم فائدتين بالفعل وهما: تقليل زمن التعرض للأشعة والتعامل مع الصورة بالكمبيوتر.
    الجواب ان شاء الله هو aلانه:

    حسب Oxford Handbook of Clinical Dentistry, 4th Edition

    Digital imaging
    This technique has been used extensively in general radiology, where it has great advantages over conventional methods in that there is a marked dose reduction and less concentrated contrast media may be used. The normal X-ray source is used but the receptor is a charged coupled device linked to a computer or a photo-stimulable phosphor plate which is scanned by a laser. The image is practically instantaneous and

    eliminates

    5.x-ray periapical for immature tooth is
    .generally conclusive
    .simply inconculosive*
    .should be compered with antermere

    pt have truma in upper centeral incisior the tooth and the alveoral bone is move as one pic يعني لما بعمل examination intraorallyالسن يتحرك مع العظم المحيط بية..السؤال ازاي نشوفها في الاشعة..
    1_gap between the apicx of root and alveolar bone
    2_difinite line of fracture
    3_no apear in x_ray
    انا اخترت 2

    which one of the conditions would delay a dentist’s decision of taking full mouth X-ray examination؟
    a. pregnancy
    b. patient had full mouth examination by X-ray 6 months ago
    c. patient will receive radiotherapy next week
    d. patient had CT examination last week

    حل عبيدة
    روبو
    pt have truma in upper centeral incisior the tooth and the alveoral bone is move as one pic يعني لما بعمل examination intraorallyالسن يتحرك مع العظم المحيط بية..السؤال ازاي نشوفها في الاشعة..
    1_gap between the apicx of root and alveolar bone
    2_difinite line of fracture
    3_no apear in x_ray
    انا اخترت 2
    الاحتمال الاول خطأ لان العظم ملتصق بالسن فلا يوجد فجوة بينهما
    الاحتمال الثالث خطا لأن الكسر يكون ظاهرا على الاشعة كخط و هو الاحتمال الثاني الصحيح

    #82244
     brandy689 
    Participant

    Child had premature loss of 2nd lower molecular lingual arch isuseed to
    a.prevent distal movement of 6
    b.prevent buccal tipping or incisor
    c.prevent lingual tipping of incisor
    c

    #82245
     brandy689 
    Participant

    Active
    sterilization
    b. Double sterilization
    c. Standard sterilization and prolong disinfection
    d. Standard sterilization and disinfection with double gloves
    d

    #82246
     brandy689 
    Participant

    1. Which of the following may cause gingival enlargement
    a. Phenyntoin (Dilantin). ***50-60%
    b. Cyclosporine20-30%
    c. Nifedipine ( a calcium channel blocker)20%
    d. Aspirin
    e. None of the above
    Dental Decks – page 910
    The highest incidence of drug induced hyperplasia is reported to phenytoin (Dialantin)
    بقية النص توضح أن 50-60% من الذين يتناولون ديلانتين الصوديوم لديهم Hyperplasia (التهاب لثة ضخامي) يتفاقم بوجود اللويحة الجرثومية والقلح اللثوي، بينما 20% ممن يتناولون حاصرات الكالسيوم (Nifedipine) و20-30% ممن يتناولون مثبطات المناعة (Cyclosporine) لديهم Hyperplasia.
    193) Dylantin (phynotoin) don’t give with :
    B)azoles
    C)metronidazole. ***
    D) all of the above
    Which of the following drugs is completely effective in eliminating angina episode: نوبة الذبحة
    a. Propranolol. حاصر بيتا
    b. Nifedipine. حاصر قنوات الكالسيوم
    c. Diltiazem. مضاد ذبحة وخافض ضغط
    d. Transdermal nitroglycerin. *** موسع تاجي تحت الأدمة
    e. None of the above.

    يضاف لهذه الأدوية مضادات الذهان والكآبة والإنترفيرون.
    2. The antibiotic of choice in pregnant:
    a. Metronidazole.
    b. Penicillin. ***
    c. Tetracycline.

    3. Chlorhexidine is used as mouth wash in the concentration of:
    a. 0.1-0.2% ***
    b. 1-2% في إرواء الأقنية
    c. 5-10%
    d. 20%

    4. Aplastic anemia is caused by: فقر الدم اللا تنسجي
    a. Tetracycline.
    b. Penicillin.
    c. Erythromycin.
    d. Sulfonamide. *** مثل السيبتريم

    Aplastic Anemia
    Roughly half of all aplastic anemias occur as a result of drugs (such antibiotics as chloramphenicol, sulfonamides, phenylbutazone [Butazolidin], and such anticonvulsant agents as mephenytoin)
    Also: chloramphenicol, phenylbutazone [Butazolidin], and such anticonvulsant agents as mephenytoin.

    5. 30 years old pt came to the clinic with brownish discoloration of all his teeth (intrinsic discoloration) & yellowish in U/V light the most likely cause is:
    1/ flourosis
    2/ tetracycline. ***
    3/ amelogensis imperfecta
    4/ dentogensis imperfectea

    6. Treatment of fungal infections:
    a. Penicillin
    b. Tetracyclin
    c. Nystatin. ***
    المرجع: Dental Decks – page 2454 و Oral thrush (fungal infection in the mouth)

    3. When do we give antibiotic:
    a. Widespread, rapid infection
    b. Compromised host defence دفاع منقوص
    c. ….
    D. A&b

    Antibiotics are most used in cases of:
    a-Acute Localized lesion
    b-Diffuse , Highly progressing lesion. ***

    40. Main disadvantage of chlorhexidine:
    a. Staining. ***
    b. Burning sensation.
    c. Altered taste.
    أكبر سلبية لكلور الهكسيدين هي تأثيره الملوّن للأسنان واللسان بالإضافة إلى أن التركيز المنخفض المستخدم لا يكفي للتخلص من إيجابيات الغرام فتطلق الكبريت الطيار وتسبب رائحة كريهة.
    chlorohexidine has several disadvantages. One of the most important disadvantages is that if a patient rinses his mouth with chlorohexidine compositions regularly, his teeth and tongue obtain a brownish colour. This is off course a major disadvantage. Another disadvantage of chlorohexidine is that it has no significant anti-bacterial effect on gram positive bacteria at relatively low concentrations. This means that gram positive bacteria will not be effected by the rinse composition and may thus still cause periodontitis or produce the volatile sulphur compounds that cause the malodour.

    9.prophylactic antibiotic needed in
    .anesthesia not interaligamentary
    .suture removal
    .routine tooth brushing
    .orthodontic band ***
    “Dental secrets”

    Calcium channel blockers cause increase saliva secretion.
    a. True.
    b. False. ***

    1. Atropine :
    A- Dries secretion such saliva. ***يجفف
    B- depresses the pulse rate.
    c -cause central nervous system depression.
    2. Drug used to decrease saliva during impression taking is:
    1. Cholinergic.
    2. AntiCholinergic. ***
    3. Antidiabetic.
    4. Anticorticosteroid.

    3. In order to decrease the gastric secretion:
    histamine A antigen equivalent
    histamine B antigen equivalent
    anticholenergic. ***
    adrenal steroids

    4. Drug used to increase saliva is:
    1- anticholinergic.
    2- cholinergic. ***
    3- antidiabetic
    4- anticorticosteroid

    5. Pt with complete denture come to your clinic, complaint from his dry mouth, the proper medicine is:
    1. Anti diabetic medicine.
    2. Anticordial. ***
    3. Steroid.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atropine
    Atropine: It is classified as an anticholinergic drug
    Injections of atropine are used in the treatment of bradycardia (an extremely low heart rate), asystole and pulseless electrical activity (PEA) in cardiac arrest. This works because the main action of the vagus nerve of the parasympathetic system on the heart is to decrease heart rate. Atropine blocks this action and, therefore, may speed up the heart rate.
    Atropine’s actions on the parasympathetic nervous system inhibits salivary, sweat, and mucus glands.
    Atropine induces mydriasis by blocking contraction of the circular pupillary sphincter muscle, which is normally stimulated by acetylcholine release
    And
    Dental Decks – page 2012 – 2192
    Scopolamine, atropine and benztropine are anticolinergic drugs. They decrease the flow of And salive.Cholinesterase inhibition is associated with a variety of acute symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, blurred vision, stomach cramps, and rapid heart rate.

    تصحيح أرجو الانتباه له:
    – Cholinergic يزيد اللعاب ويبطئ النبض ويزيد الإفراز المعدي
    – anticholinergic تنقص اللعاب وتوسع الحدقة وتزيد النبض وتنقص الإفراز المعدي
    – عمل الأتروبين يكافيء عمل الأسيتيل كولين ويعاكس عمل الكولين استيراز.

    -pt on long term antibiotic came with systemic Candida:
    1-amphotrecin
    2-fluconazol ***
    3-nystatin
    Oxford Handbook of Clinical Dentistry – 4th Ed. (2005) – page 240
    Fluconazole 50 mg od is the systemic drug of choice. C. Glabrata, C. Tropicalis, and C. Knusel are fluconazole resistant, therefore, candida subtyping should be performed for resistant cases.
    العلاج المفضل للمبيضات جهازياً هو الفلوكونازول حب أو حقن وريدي ويفيد بالحالات المعندة، وموضعياً النستاتين معلق أو حب مص وممكن استخدام الكلورهكسيدين ، والأمفوتريسن والميكونازول الأغلى ثمناً.
    7. trigeminal neuralgia treated by carbomizapine, the max dose per day divided in doses is:
    a-200 mg
    B-500mg
    C-1000mg
    D-1200mg
    المرجع: كتاب الألم الفموي الوجهي ص 104
    الجرعة اليومية 600-1200 ملغ
    Usual Adult Dose for Trigeminal Neuralgia
    Initial dose: 100 mg orally twice a day (immediate or extended release) or 50 mg orally 4 times a day (suspension).
    May increase by up to 200 mg/day using increments of 100 mg every 12 hours (immediate or extended release), or 50 mg four times a day. (suspension), only as needed to achieve freedom from pain. Do not exceed 1200 mg/ day.
    Maintenance dose: 400 to 800 mg/day.
    Some patients may be maintained on as little as 200 mg/day while others may require as much as 1200 mg/day. At least once every 3 months throughout the treatment period, attempts should be made to reduce the dose to the minimum effective level or to discontinue the drug

    Read more: Carbamazepine Dosage – Drugs.com

    8. 10 years child with congenital heart disease came for extraction of his lower 1st molar, the antibiotic for choice for prevention of infective endocarditis is;
    a-ampicelline 30 mg /kg orally 1hour before procedure
    b-cephalixine 50mg/kg orally 1hour before procedure
    c-clindamicine 20mg/kg orally 1hour before procedure
    d-amoxicilline 50mg/kg orally 1hour before procedure
    Dental secrets
    Amoxicillin, 2.0 gm orally 1 hr before procedure””
    Dental decks 1524

    20- if you do mouth wash by 10% glucose , the P H can be read from the
    Carve

    pharma
    Candida infection is a frequent cause of:
    Burning mouth

    patient had anaphylactic shock due to penicillin injection , what’s the most important in
    the emergency treatment to do
    a) 200 mg hydrocortizone intravenous
    b) 0.5 mg epinephrine of 1/10000 intra venous++++ <the only IV in the choices>
    Management
    • Place patient supine with legs raised, if possible.
    • 0.5 ml of 1:1000 adrenaline IM or SC. Repeat after 15 min, then every 15 min until improved. Do not give IV in this concentration as it will induce ventricular fibrillation.
    • Up to 500 mg of hydrocortisone IV.
    • Up to 20 mg of chlorpheniramine slowly IV (if available).
    • O2 by mask.
    السلام عليكم يعطيك العافية دكتور ايهم كلامك صح انا وجدت مرجع بيقول انه العلاج الاساسي في هيك حالة هو الادرينالين الالفي نصف مل عضليا او تحت الجلد
    و ممكن اعطاء clorphinairamine ببطء 20 ملغ وريديا مع الادرينالين في الحالات الشديدة او كبديل اذا لم يتوفر الادرينالين وهو طبعا انتي هيستامين
    و للفائدة اذكر ان علاج الهجمة الحادة للربو Athma هو بالادرينالين الالفي ايضا نصف مل عضليا
    او بديل عنه للربو هو الامينو فيلين وريديا ببطئ شديد
    وشكرا الك دكتور ايهم

    #82247
     brandy689 
    Participant

    .Acase with afemale missing11 …. Which of teeth should be used as an abutment for best esthetic
    A. 12
    B. 21
    C. 12 21 ***
    D.121321

    #82248
     brandy689 
    Participant

    Cbct property ??
    A. Good tmvvualualization
    b. Grater amount of radiation as normal radiographic technique ****
    c. More accurate

    #82249
     brandy689 
    Participant

    What the sequence of selection shade colors
    1 hue
    2 value
    3 chroma
    vch

    #82250
     brandy689 
    Participant

    Child came with amalgam restoration fracture at isthmus portion, this fracturedue to:
    1- Wide preparation at isthmus **
    2- High occlusal
    3- Shallow preparation
    4- Constricted isthmus
    After class ll amalgam fill, broken is happening in isthmus area, why:
    1- Over high of filling vertically **
    2- Over flair Cavo_surface angel or edge
    3- Unproper mixed fill
    The cause of fracture in amalgam class II restoration is:
    1- Thin thickness at the marginal ridge **
    2- wide flared cavity
    3- deep cavity

    #82251
     brandy689 
    Participant

    Pt with sever periapical pain and necrotic pulp, Lamina Dura and RL fro Long duration, x ray radiolent in apical part,
    Acute apical periodontitis
    Acute excesserbation or choronic apical periodintitis
    choronic peri apical abcession
    Choronic periodontal abcession
    b

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